The Minute Book
Wednesday, 21 May 2014

Matron Katherine Osborne MacLatchy
Topic: CEF

Matron Katherine Osborne MacLatchy

No. 3 Canadian General Hospital

Katherine Osborne MacLatchy was born at Grand Pré, Nova Scotia, on 15 February, 1874. She was serving with the Permanent Army Medical Corps at Montreal when she attestedt for overseas service on 4 March, 1915. proceeding overseas with No. 3 Canadian General Hospital, which was raised at McGill University, she served as Matron with No. 3 C.G.H. throughout the war.

Matron MacLatchy was awarded the Royal Red Cross, 1st Class, and was Mentioned in Despatches twice (London Gazette # 31089 and 29422).

Katherine MacLatchy can be found in the Soldiers of the First World War Database at Library and Archives Canada:

No. 3 (McGill University) Canadian General Hospital

Official History of the Canadian Forces in the Great War; The Medical Services, by Sir Andrew MacPhail, 1925

  • Organized Montreal, 5 Mar 1915
  • Shornecliffe, 16 Mat 1915 to 16 Jun 1915
  • Dannes-Camiers, 19 Jun 1915 to 5 Jan 1915
  • Boulogne, 6 Jan 1916 to 29 May 1919
  • Officers Commanding: H.S. Birkett, J.M. Elder, L. Drum
  • Matron: K.O. MacLatchy

Notes from the Genealogical Forum "nsroots"

[nsroots] Matron Katherine Osborne MacLatchy born Grand Pre, NS in 1874

Matron Katherine Osborne MacLatchy of the of the College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia (founded in 1909 as the Graduate Nurses' Association of Nova Scotia — changed to Registered Nurses Association of Nova Scotia, and now the College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia) — … is a recipient of one of the College's Centennial Award of Distinction that was presented on May 13, 2009, when the College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia celebrated 100 years. The awards were presented to 100 current/former registered nurses (10 per decade) whose significant accomplishments have influenced the advancement of the nursing profession. In 1910, an Act to Incorporate the Graduate Nurses' Association of Nova Scotia (original name) was passed so we have celebrations from 2009-2010.

This is a short profile that we have on file:

Katherine Osborne MacLatchy

Katherine MacLatchy was born in Grand Pre, Nova Scotia, February 15, 1874. Katherine graduated from the Saint John General Public Hospital in Saint John, NB in 1898. She enlisted in the Canadian Army Medical Corps (Over-Seas Expeditionary Force) in Montreal as a trained nurse in 1915. She held the position of Matron, at the Cogswell Street Military Hospital and Camp Hill Hospital in Halifax. Katherine was Vice-President of Graduate Nurses' Association of Nova Scotia (GNANS) in 1921, and Honorary President, (member of the executive) of GNANS in 1922. Katherine registered with the Association in 1923 and remained a member until 1932. During her term on the executive of the Graduate Nurses' Association of Nova Scotia, the Act to Incorporate the Graduate Nurses' Association of Nova Scotia was amended, and passed on April 29, 1922.

I have received the following information from the Archives at Acadia University — "Kate and Fran McLatchy both of whom served as nurses in WW1 returned home to Grand Pre. They lived in the Borden house next door to the Covenanter Church for years. Kate died in 1969 at age 95, and is buried in the graveyard that surrounds the Covenanter Church. Neither married and Fran outlived Kate. As far as relatives—nieces nephews- K and F had a brother my sources felt that there were some but they did not know where they were."

The Canadian Experience of the Great War: A Guide to Memoirs, by Brian Tennyson

1158.     MacLatchy, Katherine Osborne [1874-1969]. "No. 3 Canadian General Hospital." Canadian Nurse and Hospital Reviews,18:7 (July 1922): 414-18. ISSN 00084581. AMICUS 7505937. OONL. Reprinted as "Matron MacLatchy's Recollections" in Clare Gass, The War Diaries of Clare Gass, ed. Susan Mann, Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, c2000, xlvii, 306 p.: ill., bibl., maps, 22 cm., 243-47. McGill-Queen's/Hannah Institute Studies in the History of Medicine, Health and Society 9. ISBN 0773521267. AMICUS 26573404. NSHD. Brief memoir, 1915 to 1918. Born at Grand Pré, Nova Scotia, MacLatchy was a niece of Sir Robert Borden. She studied nirsing in Montreal and was working there when she joined No. 3 (McGill) Canadian general Hospital as matron in May 1915. After the war she served as matron of Camp Hill Hospital in halifax from 1918 to 1920, when she moved to New York. She later retired to Grand Pré.

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Tuesday, 20 May 2014

The Legionnaire's Code of Honour
Topic: Discipline

The Legionnaire's Code of Honour

Website of the Embassy of France in the United States - February 26, 2001

1.     Legionnaire: you are a volunteer serving France faithfully and with honor.

2.     Every Legionnaire is your brother-at-arms, irrespective of his nationality, race or creed. You will demonstrate this by an unwavering and straight forward solidarity which must always bind together members of the same family.

3.     Respectful of the Legion's traditions, honoring your superiors, discipline and comradeship are your strength, courage and loyalty your virtues.

4.     Proud of your status as a legionnaire, you will display this pride, by your turnout, always impeccable, your behavior, ever worthy, though modest, your living-quarters, always tidy.

5.     An elite soldier: you will train vigorously, you will maintain your weapons as if it were your most precious possession, you will keep your body in the peak of condition, always fit.

6.     A mission once given to you becomes sacred to you, you will accomplish it to the end and at all costs.

7.     In combat: you will act without relish of your tasks, or hatred; you will respect the vanquished enemy and will never abandon neither your wounded nor your dead, nor will you under any circumstances surrender your arms.

The Senior Subaltern

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Monday, 19 May 2014

The .303 Vickers Machine Gun
Topic: Militaria

The Vickers .303-inch Medium Machine Gun

The .303 Vickers Machine Gun.


The Gun

Name.–.303 Vickers medium machine gun.
Weight.–40 lb (with water in barrel casing.
Rate of fire.–about 500 rounds per minute.

The .303 Vickers Machine Gun.

Organization of the Infantry Battalion Machine Gun Platoon (1951)

It's difficult to separate modern perceptions of infantry or ground combat with the presence and firepower of the machine gun. Before the First World War, machine guns were a tactical oddity, not quite having proven their usefulness to the point that infantry units were organized to capitalize n the machine gun's advantages, or acquired in sufficient numbers to be a decisive weapon on their own terms. The years of trench warfare in France and Flanders changed that. Machine guns not only appeared in greater numbers in infantry battalions, but as the value and relative merits of light and medium/heavy machine guns became wide recognized, organizations did change.

The challenges of organizing comprehensive machine gun firepower across a brigade's units led to the creation of Brigade Machine Gun Companies. These companies manned medium machine guns (Vickers) while the infantry battalions absorbed more light machine guns (Lewis Guns), and the Canadian Machine Gun Corps took form. By 1918, these companies were reformed into Division Machine Gun Battalions. The Canadian Corps was further supported by mobile Machine Gun units which provided a valuable degree of mobility once more open warfare commenced in the final months of the War. And by 1918, the machine gun had proven to all its tactical value.

In 1920, the Canadian Militia was undergoing examination and reorganization, with many Corps working to absorb the lessons of the Great War in both training and organizational change. Among these changes was the creation of the Canadian Machine Gun Corps in the Canadian Militia which existed from 1920 until 1936. In 1936, the units of the C.M.G.C. were disbanded, and amalgamated with infantry battalions in the Militia (thus resulting in the "(M.G.)" designation that some units held at the time). A few of these units were subsequently employed to form heavy weapons companies and served as such during the Second World War.

The formation of integral machine gun platoon in infantry battalions was also developed, and these survived in the post-war period. The images fund in this post are taken from the 1951 editions of the Infantry Training manuals for The Medium Machine Gun.

inf_trg_manual_pt2_drills 303_vickers_range_tables_cover

manuals for the .303 Vickers Machine Gun. 1951 Part II - Drills and Training (left); and Range tables (1939) (right). Click cover images for larger image.

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Sunday, 18 May 2014

Wolseley Barracks Site Plan (1937)
Topic: Wolseley Barracks

Wolseley Barracks Site Plan (1937)

Wolseley Barracks site plan (partial); 1937

Wolseley Barracks site plan (partial); 1937
(Click image for lage version.)

This site plan of Wolseley Barracks, drawn soon after the completion of the Royal School Building, shows the location of buildings north and east of Wolseley Hall in 1937. Only three of the shown buildings remain, two of which are listed for removel by the Department of National Defence within the next few years.

Click the image at right for a large scan of the original plan, scroll ddown for a labelled version matching the building lists below, and for an image overlaying the site plan on the modern aerial photo.

Designated buildings:

  • A – "A" Block; Wolseley Hall
  • C – Stables
  • D – Vehical (sic) Shed
  • E – Engineers Workshop
  • F – (Unlabelled for purpose.)
  • G – Supply Depot
  • H – Old Guardroom
  • I – Magazine
  • K – Trades Building
  • L – Gymnasium
  • M – Garage

Undesignated buildings:

  • 1 – Engineers Stores
  • 2 – Gasoline Hut
  • 3 – Fire Shed
  • 4 – Royal School Building (which was later designated “O” Block”)

The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Sunday, 18 May 2014 12:06 AM EDT
Saturday, 17 May 2014

Drake the Tank Bank
Topic: Militaria

Drake the Tank Bank

From the photo album of Nursing Sister Ada A. Kemp comes this photograph of one of the Mark IV Tanks which toured parts of Great Britain in support of War Bond fund raising campaigns. Some of the tanks used had returned from the battlefield in France, others were taken from the training units in England. The tank pictured, No. 137 "Drake," was a training tank employed for this purpose.

Six Mark IV male tanks toured England, Wales, and Scotland in 1918, raising millions of pounds through Tank Bank Weeks. These touring tanks were:

  • No. 141, "Egbert"
  • No. 130, "Nelson"
  • No. 113, "Julian"
  • No. 119, "Old Bill"
  • No. 137, "Drake"
  • No. 142, "Iron Rations"

More on the touring tanks:

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Saturday, 17 May 2014 12:23 AM EDT
Friday, 16 May 2014

The Evolution of the Canadian Army
Topic: Canadian Militia

The medals of Brigadier-General C. F. Winter, The Royal Canadian Regiment, late Royal Fusiliers and Governor General's Foot Guards. Egypt and Sudan 1882-89 (Tel-El-Kebir clasp); North West Canada 1885 (Saskatchewan clasp); Queen's South Africa 1899-1902 (Cape Colony, Orange Free State, Johannesburg); Jubilee 1935 ; Coronation 1937; Colonial Auxiliary Officers' Decoration, EviiR.; Khedive's Star 1882.

The Evolution of the Canadian Army

From the Lecture on "The Evolution of the Canadian Army" by Capt. C.F. Winter, the G.G. Foot Guards; The Officers' Association of the Militia of Canada; Transactions of the Semi-Annual Meeting 1899

Brigadier General Charles Francis Winter
July 1931

Charles Francis Winter was born in Montreal, Quebec on the 3 February 1863. He joined the British Army at age 17 in 1880, serving with the 7th Royal Fusiliers. He took part in the Egypt campaign of 1882, seeing action at Kassassin and Tel-el-Kebir. On his return to Canada he entered the Civil Service and served with the Governor General's Foot Guards. He served in the North West campaign of 1885 as Colour-Sergeant of the Ottawa Sharpshooters, including at the relief of Battleford, 24 April 1885. Wounded at Cut Knife Hill on 2 May 1885 and served in operations against Chief Big Bear's Band, June-July 1885. Winter was later commissioned in the Foot Guards and served in the South African War as Captain in the Second (Special Service) Battalion of The Royal Canadian Regiment. There he served in operations in the Orange Free State, April-May 1900, including the action at Zand River; operations in the Transvaal, May-June 1900, including actions near Johannesburg and Pretoria; operations in the Transvaal, east of Pretoria, July and September 1900; operations west of Pretoria, August 1900 and operations on the Orange River Colony, August 1900. He transferred to the Canadian Permanent Staff in 1907 as a Major and was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel in 1913, serving as Military Secretary at Headquarters until 1917, working for the Minister of Militia and Defence, Lieutenant-General Sir Sam Hughes. He served as Secretary-Treasurer of the Dominion of Canada Rifle Association, and was Adjutant of the 1912 Bisley Team, and Captain of the 1922 Team. Winter retired as a Brigadier-General in 1921 and died on 21 October 1946. He was a prolific author, who published articles containing anecdotes and accounts of his service at Tel-el-Kebir, in the North West Rebellion, and in South Africa. Winter also wrote one book, The Hon Sir Sam Hughes, Canada's War Minister 1911-1916, an account of his experiences with the latter.

The Present [1899]

The organized defensive forces of the Dominion to-day have an established strength of 36,204 officers and men, with 3,715 horses. This Force consists of cavalry 2,607, artillery, 4,497 with 114 guns. Engineers, 212, and Infantry 28,889 and is composed of 863 officers and men belonging to Permanent Units, (practically "Regular," though theoretically "embodied militia") and 35,342 active militia proper, these latter being again subdivided into 10,212 officers and men of City Corps, and 25,992 officers and men of Units in rural districts. Of this Force, however, only 25,296, or 71% received any training at all last year while, according to the Dominion Census of 1891 we have in the Country 657,788 men of military age, capable of bearing arms and who could be taken for service if need be. Speaking generally and broadly we have the very best of assurances for believing that the above enumerated organized force is, on the whole, composed of very excellent personnel it has very lately been rearmed at considerable expense the Artillery with new breach-loading 12 pdrs, and the Infantry (though the distribution to all Units is not yet completed) with "Lee-Enfield" magazine rifles, (and about to be provided with the Oliver equipment), in addition to a certain number of Maxim machine guns already distributed. Facilities for the training of our officers in all the preliminary and elementary work is afforded by the various Royal Schools of military instructions, and one may perhaps say, so far as armament and the preliminary training of its officers is concerned, there are few militia forces in the world our superior. Upon these points therefore we may be assumed to have evolved very materially in a forward direction since the days of "The Montrealers d'Ailleboust." It is, however, when contrasting the organized strength maintained just after Confederation and for some years subsequent to the passage of the Militia Act, and the organization of our present Force, with its aggregate to-day, and the known difficulty of getting full musters at inspections, that one is inclined to say, in this respect at any rate our evolution has not been at all satisfactory.

Chap. 41, of the revised Statutes of Canada provides for the control and government of the armed defenders of the Dominion, and while in enacting that the Militia of the country shall consist of every able-bodied man between the ages of 18 end 45, stipulates that the number to be trained in any one year shall not exceed 45,000 men. The numbers maintained and trained in some of the years immediately subsequent to the passage of this Act were as follows:

  • 1869 — 43,541, with 25 additional corps enrolled, but Government was unable at the time to provide the necessary arms and uniforms these made the total number in reality over 45,000.
  • 1870 — number trained, 44,519.

Of course the Fenian disturbances on our borders and the expedition to the Red River explains very much these figures, since in 1877, notwithstanding that our area to guard had in the meantime been much increased by the entry into the Dominion of British Columbia, Manitoba, and Prince Edward Island, the numbers fell to 23,000, and have ever since varied from the latter figure to about 35,000, or, roughly, one Corps d'Armee.

These numbers, drawn by purely voluntary enlistment from a much smaller population than we boast to-day, certainly show that we have gone backwards in the position of the Forces for defence, in so far as numbers are concerned. We have, however, gone distinctly forward in other directions, even outside of armament and equipment. Our Officers and N. C. Os., on the whole, are decidedly superior in professional attainments (owing to facilities of the Military Schools) to their predecessors of similar ranks in 1867-70 — many still remain in regimental ranks who had the practical experience of actual service in 1885 and we are commanded by an Officer of tried experience and first-class reputation, who in the short time he has been with us has already won the confidence of all in a singular degree. We have however, lost the collective example and guidance of the Imperial Regulars who for over a 100 years were the inspiration and mentors of our Militias. Our Permanent Corps, valuable as they have been, and are, cannot, owing to their very limited establishments, but in part make up for the withdrawal of the Regulars in 1870. The old guides to which our predecessors looked in 1775-6, 1812-14, 1837-8, 1866 and 1870, are no longer permanently with us, except upon the extreme confines of our Dominion their administrative departments of all kinds are no longer here to rely upon, and at present we can scarcely see anything that has been established to take their place. Speaking generally, we are still a certain number of battalions of Infantry of varying strengths and value, a few engineers, and cavalry, a fair artillery, with a small lot of, on the whole, patient and painstaking men as teachers and instructors in the Permanent Corps, but these altogether are in no military sense, as yet, an army, or even a complete Military organization. In the light of very recent campaigns, we all now know that any military force which does not include the proportion of all arms, viz: infantry, artillery, engineers, and cavalry, with the administrative departments requisite to feed, clothe, supply with ammunition and war material, etc., as well as care properly for the sick and wounded and provide means of trans portion, etc, is more or less valueless for practical military operations in the present day.

elipsis graphic

The main great duties of our Militia may be generally classified as follows:—

1st. The support and maintenance of the Civil Law and Order within the territories of the Dominion.

2nd. The primary defence of Canada against invasion.

3rd. Assistance in the defence of the Empire and assumption of the "offensive-defensive" for such purpose.

elipsis graphic

Captain Winter's paper concludes with the following recommendations, each of which he presents in detail:

1.     The elimination of all political control from the purely military administration of the country's defences.

2.     The education of the public of the country to a more favourable view of their national defences, and the creation of a public spirit of real interest in all that concerns the efficiency and welfare of the militia.

3.     The expansion of the cadet system and the establishment of drill companies in all public and separate schools in cities and towns.

4.     The creation of supply and other departmental adjuncts for our militia force, and their organization upon lines bests calculated, to meet our own special requirements.

4a.     The education of a corps of officers from whom a trained staff may be selected in case of mobilization, or the formation of a national contingent for participation in the "offensive-defensive," should such contingencies arise.

5.     The inauguration of manoeuvres, or something practical on a more extended scale than is provided by our present camps of exercise and holiday reviews, with, at the same time, the exaction of a more rigorous discipline while under arms from all ranks.

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Friday, 16 May 2014 7:25 AM EDT
Thursday, 15 May 2014

The X-Ray Staff, No. 3 C.G.H.
Topic: CEF

The X-Ray Staff; No. 3 Canadian General Hospital

The X-Ray Staff

No. 3 Canadian General Hospital

For most of the First World War, from 6 Jan 1916 to 29 May 1919, No. 3 Canadian General Hospital was located at Boulogne sur Mer. The photo album of Nursing Sister Ada Andrews Kemp, of Port Hope, Ontario, shows rare glimpses of life at No. 3 C.G.H., such as the above image of the X-Ray Staff.

The Canadian medical services during the First World War were supplied with 520 x-ray outfits and used 1,076,000 x-ray plates in a single year.

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Wednesday, 14 May 2014

Dig a hole in your back yard
Topic: Humour

Dig a hole in your back yard

Up Front, Bill Mauldin, 1945

Dig a hole in your back yard while it is raining. Sit in the hole until the water climbs up around your ankles. Pour cold mud down your shirt collar. Sit there for forty-eight hours, and, so there is no danger of your dozing off, imagine that a guy is sneaking around waiting for a chance to club you on the head or set your house on fire.

Get out of the hole, fill a suitcase with rocks, pick it up, put a shotgun in your other hand, and walk on the muddiest road you can find. Fall flat on your face every few minutes as you imagine big meteors streaking down to sock you.

After ten or twelve miles (remember, you are still carrying the shotgun and suitcase) start sneaking through the wet brush. Imagine that somebody has booby-trapped your route with rattlesnakes which will bite you if you step on them. Give some friend a rifle and have him blast in your direction once in a while.

Snoop around until you find a bull. Try to figure out a way to sneak around him without letting him see you. When he does see you, run like hell all the way back to your hole in the back yard, drop the suitcase and shotgun, and get in.

If you repeat this performance every three days for several months you may begin to understand why an infantryman sometimes gets out of breath. But you still won't understand how he feels when things get tough.

The Frontenac Times

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Sunday, 4 May 2014 5:52 PM EDT
Tuesday, 13 May 2014

Facts About Our Troops and The Enemy (1942)
Topic: Discipline

Facts About Our Troops and The Enemy (1942)

Canadian Army Training Memorandum, No 21, December 1942

Facts About Our Own Troops

General Montgomery, Commander 8th Army in Libya, says that training is not satisfactory until every C.O. can ask himself the following questions and satisfy himself as to the answers:

(a)     Are my men 100% fit and anxious to kill Germans and Japs?

(b)     Is every man in the Battalion master of his weapons?

(c)     Do all officers understand the technique of Battle Procedure?

(d)     Can every Platoon and Company carry out an efficient Platoon or Company attack?

(e)     Do all my Platoon and Section commanders understand the Platoon locality in defence?

(f)     Do all ranks understand the practical application of concealment?

(g)     Do all officers, N.C.Os. and men understand the technique of M.T. moves?

(h)     Do all ranks understand the offensive use of Infantry V Tank by day or night?

(i)     Can the Battalion carry out a night attack under all conditions?

(j)     Has the Battalion practised patrolling and recce and do they understand their value?

(k)     Does the Battalion understand the technique of River Crossing by day and night and have they practised it?

(l)     Is the Man Management good in my Battalion?

And finally, the essentials of a Commander are: Enthusiasm, Cheerfulness, and the will to work like hell.


What have you done during the past month to increase the efficiency of your men? Individually? Collectively?

Have you received all the new Military Training Pamphlets to which you are entitled according to notifications appearing in Routine and Army Orders? Have you studied them?

If a man is backward, do you try to bring him along so that he may reach the same standard as the other men, or do you just detail him for P.K.F. (permanent kitchen fatigue)?

Nothing Matters Now but WAR!

Facts About The Enemy

Our enemies are NOT "push-overs." If you still have such ideas in your heads at this stage of the game, get rid of them.

The German soldier has had army life and discipline drilled into him from early boyhood. He was in the "Jungvolk" at 10, and from then on his training was directed along military lines with constantly increasing and awe-inspiring efficiency. He knows what he is fighting for today (Goebbels tells him continually!)-to wipe out all stigma of the 1918 defeat and to give the German race its rightful place-world dominations. He is determined, ruthless and skilled in the use of his weapons. He will stop at nothing until success is achieved or he is destroyed!

The Japanese soldier is a sly, resourceful and cunning enemy. He will not surrender. Death in war for his god-like Emperor is an honour-the greatest possible honour for a Japanese soldier. In the field he will not hesitate to draw our fire, sacrificing his own life to reveal our positions to his comrades. For months during his training Reveille is at 0130 hours (not a typographical error), and he averages three hours sleep a night. Daily he swims at least 100 metres in full kit. He is tough, determined, well trained. His skin may be yellow but his nature is not.

With our enemies only one thing counts — GAINING THE OBJECTIVE. No sacrifice of human life is too great! No barbarism is too cruel! No human effort is too exhausting I Only the final ACHIEVEMENT matters.

Can we afford to do less? Anything but our best is courting defeat-treason to our cause of Freedom, justice, Right. The enemy can and will be destroyed by a brand of cool courage, fearlessness, determination, and skill greater than his own. We have it-let's use it! They asked for it—let's give it to them!

The Senior Subaltern

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Sunday, 4 May 2014 4:54 PM EDT
Monday, 12 May 2014

Canadian Infantry: Divisional Affiliations
Topic: Canadian Army
1st Cdn Div 2nd Cdn Div 3rd Cdn Div 4th Cdn Div 5th Cdn Div

Canadian Infantry Regiments: Divisional Affiliations

On 9 Jul, 2013, the Canadian Minister of National Defence announced that the Canadian Army would return to an organization based on "Divisions," to be accomplished by renaming the existing Area commands as follows:

  • 1st Canadian Divisional Headquarters to be at Canadian Force Base Kingston (this division has no permanent subordinate brigades).
  • Secteur du Québec de la Force terrestre to become the 2nd Canadian Division.
  • Land Force Western Area to become the 3rd Canadian Division.
  • Land Force Central Area to become the 4th Canadian Division.
  • Land Force Atlantic Area to become the 5th Canadian Division.

In 2014, the Divisions will receive new coloured shoulder patches for wear on dress uniforms and they will also receive traditional flags.

elipsis graphic

While contemplating one of the justifying points supporting this change, which was to connect to the past achievenments of the Canadian Army, I wondered which units would be in the same divisions that they were in during past conflicts. Soldiers build great pride in their regiment's battle honours and achievements, but they seldom associate those successes with the Divisions (or Brigade) the unit belonged to at the time.

elipsis graphic

The following chart provides a visual depiction of the Divisional affiliations for each of Canada's infantry regiments through the First and Second World Wars, and today.

    First World War Perpetuation/Division Second World War Division New 2014 Divisions
1 48th Highlanders of Canada 15th Bn, CEF
(3rd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
48th Highrs
(1st Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
4th Cdn Div
2 The Algonquin Regiment   Alq R
(20th Inf Bde, 4th Cdn Armd Div)
4th Cdn Div
3 The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada (Princess Louise's) 19th Bn, CEF
(4th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Div)
A&S Highrs of C
(10th Inf Bde, 4th Cdn Armd Div)
4th Cdn Div
4 The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment of Canada) 13th Bn, CEF
(3rd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
Black Watch
(5th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Inf Div)
2nd Cdn Div
42nd Bn, CEF
(7th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Div)
73nd Bn, CEF
(12th Inf Bde, 4th Cdn Div)
5 The Brockville Rifles     4th Cdn Div
6 The Calgary Highlanders 15th Bn, CEF
(3rd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
Calg Highrs
(5th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Inf Div)
3rd Cdn Div
7 The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa 38th Bn, CEF
(12th Inf Bde, 4th Cdn Div)
CH of O
(3rd Cdn Div)
4th Cdn Div
8 The Canadian Grenadier Guards 87th Bn, CEF
(11th Inf Bde, 4th Cdn Div)
(4th Armd Bde, 4th Cdn Armd Div)
4th Cdn Div
9 The Canadian Scottish Regiment (Princess Mary's) 16th Bn, CEF
(3rd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
(7th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Inf Div)
3rd Cdn Div
10 Cape Breton Highlanders 85th Bn, CEF
(12th Inf Bde, 4th Cdn Div)
(11th Cdn Bde, 5th Cdn Armd Div)
5th Cdn Div
11 The Essex and Kent Scottish 18th Bn, CEF
(4th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Div)
Essex Scot
(5th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Inf Div)
4th Cdn Div
12 Les Fusiliers de Sherbrooke   F de Sher
(2nd Armd Bde)
2nd Cdn Div
13 Les Fusiliers du St-Laurent     2nd Cdn Div
14 Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal   FMR
(6th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Inf Div)
2nd Cdn Div
15 Governor General's Foot Guards 2nd Bn, CEF
(1st Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
21st Armd Regt
(4th Armd Bde, 4th Cdn Armd Div)
4th Cdn Div
16 The Grey and Simcoe Foresters     4th Cdn Div
17 The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment   Hasty P
(1st Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
4th Cdn Div
18 The Irish Regiment of Canada 1st Bn CMGC
(1st Cdn Div)
IR of C
(11th Cdn Bde, 5th Cdn Armd Div)
4th Cdn Div
19 The Lake Superior Scottish Regiment 52nd Bn, CEF
(9th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Div)
(4th Armd Bde, 4th Cdn Armd Div)
3rd Cdn Div
20 The Lincoln and Welland Regiment   Linc & Welld
(10th Inf Bde, 4th Cdn Armd Div)
4th Cdn Div
21 The Lorne Scots (Peel, Dufferin and Halton Regiment)     4th Cdn Div
22 The Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry) 49th Bn, CEF
(7th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Div)
(2nd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
3rd Cdn Div
23 The North Saskatchewan Regiment 1st CMR, CEF
(8th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Div)
(1st Cdn Div)
3rd Cdn Div
5th Bn, CEF
(2nd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
24 The Nova Scotia Highlanders
Cape Breton Highlanders
25th Bn, CEF
(5th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Div)
(9th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Inf Div)
5th Cdn Div
25 The North Shore Regiment   NSR
(8th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Inf Div)
5th Cdn Div
26 The Princess Louise Fusiliers   PLF
(11th & 12th Bdes, 5th Cdn Armd Div)
5th Cdn Div
27 The Princess of Wales' Own Regiment 21st Bn, CEF
(4th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Div)
  4th Cdn Div
28 Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry PPCLI, CEF
(7th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Div)
(2nd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
3rd Cdn Div
29 The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada 43rd Bn, CEF
(9th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Div)
(6th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Inf Div)
3rd Cdn Div
30 The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada 3rd Bn, CEF
(1st Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
(8th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Inf Div)
4th Cdn Div
31 Le Régiment de la Chaudière   R de Chaud
(8th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Inf Div)
2nd Cdn Div
32 Le Régiment de Maisonneuve   R de Mais
(5th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Inf Div)
2nd Cdn Div
33 Le Régiment du Saguenay     2nd Cdn Div
34 The Rocky Mountain Rangers     3rd Cdn Div
35 Royal 22e Régiment 22nd Bn, CEF
(5th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Div)
(3rd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
2nd Cdn Div
36 The Royal Canadian Regiment RCR, CEF
(7th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Div)
(1st Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
4th Cdn Div
1st Bn, CEF
(1st Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
2nd Bn, CMGC
(2nd Cdn Div)
37 The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment) 4th Bn, CEF
(1st Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
(4th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Inf Div)
4th Cdn Div
38 The Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada   HLI
(9th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Inf Div)
4th Cdn Div
39 The Royal Montreal Regiment 14th Bn, CEF
(3rd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
Army Troops 2nd Cdn Div
40 The Royal New Brunswick Regiment 26th Bn, CEF
(5th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Div)
C&Y Regt
(3rd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
5th Cdn Div
41 The Royal Newfoundland Regiment     5th Cdn Div
42 The Royal Regiment of Canada 3rd Bn, CEF
(1st Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
(4th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Inf Div)
4th Cdn Div
58th Bn, CEF
(9th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Div)
43 The Royal Regina Rifles 28th Bn, CEF
(6th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Div)
(7th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Inf Div)
3rd Cdn Div
44 The Royal Westminster Regiment 47th Bn, CEF
(10th Inf Bde, 4th Cdn Div)
(5th Cdn Armd Bde, 5th Cdn Armd Div)
3rd Cdn Div
45 The Royal Winnipeg Rifles 8th Bn, CEF
(2nd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
(7th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Inf Div)
3rd Cdn Div
10th Bn, CEF
(2nd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
27th Bn, CEF
(6th Inf Bde, 2nd Cdn Div)
44th Bn, CEF
(10th Inf Bde, 4th Cdn Div)
46 The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada 72nd Bn, CEF
(12th Inf Bde, 4th Cdn Div)
(2nd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
3rd Cdn Div
47 Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders   SDG Highrs
(9th Inf Bde, 3rd Cdn Inf Div)
4th Cdn Div
48 The Toronto Scottish Regiment 75th Bn, CEF
(11th Inf Bde, 4th Cdn Div)
Tor Scot
(2nd Cdn Div)
4th Cdn Div
49 Les Voltigeurs de Québec     2nd Cdn Div
50 The West Nova Scotia Regiment   WNSR
(3rd Inf Bde, 1st Cdn Div)
5th Cdn Div

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Sunday, 13 July 2014 10:03 PM EDT
Sunday, 11 May 2014

CF-104 Starfighter; the widowmaker
Topic: RCAF

Image from the Canadian Forces magazine Sentinel, Vol. 6, No. 2, February, 1970

Elite Starfighter Pilots take Pride in Flying Dangerous Jet

Ottawa Citizen, 26 May 1983
Hugh Adami, Citizen Staff Writer

CF-104 Starfighter
Roll of Honour

F/L J.R. Mulhall
F/L D.H. McElmon
F/L W.G. Hollingshead
F/L R.J. Prescott
F/L D.O. Schneider
F/L H.B. Sheasby
F/L I.W. MacLean
F/L J.N. Stacey
F/L I.W. McKnight
F/L D.C. Lawson
F/L H.W. Robbins
F/O R.J. Zemek
F/L R.S. Dunn
S/L D.J. Misselbrook
F/O J.W. Holmes
Capt. R.C. Archibald
Capt. R.J. Swantston
Capt.A.S. Andree
Lt. R.B. Kaiser
Capt. W.E. Brason
Lt. R. Fetchyshyn
Capt. W.M. Wright
Lt. L.S. Hebetler
Capt. J.K. Salter
Capt. P.J. Rackham
Capt. D.L. McCullough
Maj. G.A. Hermanson
Capt. J.O. Shaw
Capt. D.M. Danko
Maj. J.M.A. Coutu
Capt. W.D. Card
Capt. D.B. Breen
Capt. G. Power
Capt. B.B. Reid
Capt. D.R. Owen
Capt. J.L.A. Tremblay
Capt. S.M. Ritchie

"If I have to go, that's the way I want to go." — Canadian Forces Capt. David Owen, a few months before his death in a CF-104 Starfighter crash last December [1982].

To Owen's father, Glyn , there is no doubt his son meant those words as they talked one day last year about the perils of being a Starfighter pilot.

Since his boyhood days, the Ponoka, Alta., native had always wanted to fly. And the Starfighter became his ultimate flying machine once he joined the military.

Like many other Starfighter pilots, some of Owen's best friends had died in CF-104 crashes. But the pilot would never criticize the aircraft.

"He used to say most (crashes) were the result of pilot error," his father recalled Wednesday.

The crash involving Owen was just that.

Military investigators determined that Owen and fellow pilot, Capt. Andrew Tremblay, flying in another Starfighter, collided in mid-air while on a test mission near Cold Lake, Alta. Tremblay was also killed.

But the military won't tell the pilots' relatives which airman was at fault.

Said Owen's father: "It doesn't want to create any bad feelings."

Had David been alive to hear about Sunday's crash in West Germany involving a Canadian Forces Starfighter that killed five people, Owen said his son would be appalled by the controversy surrounding the safety record of the aircraft.

"(Starfighter pilots) are a breed apart."

Lyle Misselbrook of Saskatchewan, who lost his brother Donald as a result of a Starfighter crash in 1967, agrees.

Relatives of men who fly the Starfighter do worry about them, Misselbrook said, but they soon come to the realization that "what will be will be."

"The role of the service creates hazards. But the men who join know exactly what they are getting into."

James Stephenson, father of the pilot who safely bailed out of his Starfighter moments before its fiery crash on a West German highway Sunday, said he knows there's no point trying to tell his son to quit.

His son, Capt Al Stephenson of 439 Tactical Fighter Squadron in Baden-Solingen, West Germany, was a "close buddy" of Capt. Scott Ritchie, the Ottawa native who died last week after his Starfighter went down near Cold lake, Alta.

Ritchie's mother Betty knows why Stephenson could never be persuaded to stop flying the Starfighter. Starfighter pilots, she said, work so hard to get to fly the Starfighter.

"It's separating the men from the boys," she said.

Sunday's crash brought the total of Canadian Forces Starfighters lost to 100. Less than 100 of the original 239 purchased in the early 1960s by the Canadian military remain. Sunday's crash and the crash involving Ritchie are still being investigated.

Defence Minister Gilles Lamontagne has refused to ground the airplane.

Image from the Canadian Forces magazine Sentinel, Vol. 6, No. 2, February, 1970

Nicknamed the "widowmaker" by Canadian airmen and a "rocket with a man in it" by the Americans, about 40 Canadian Forces pilots have died in Starfighter crashes.

The U.S. Air Force, which phased out the Starfighter over the last few years, lost 167 of the 275 it purchased from Lockheed Corp. in the mid-1950s. Of 643,500 hours air time for the entire U.S. Starfighter fleet, 25.2 planes were lost for every 100,000 hours of flying.

Experts, including those in the military, say part of the reason for the high crash rate of the Canadian Starfighter is due to its role as a ground-attack aircraft — a function for which the CF-104 was not primarily designed. The aircraft was originally built as a high altitude interceptor.

Experts say pilots who lose control in low-altitude flying — whether it is due to environmental conditions or pilot error — simply don't have the time to regain control.

The single-engine, narrow winged aircraft can travel up to 2,400 kilometres an hour — twice the speed of sound.

Col. Herb Sievert said it is imperative that the Canadian Forces through its role in NATO — continue to use the Starfighter as a ground-attack aircraft since it is believed the only effective way to get to the enemy. The tactic has been widely used in the Middle east wars by the Israelis, said Sievert.

If the Starfighter was to be used as a high-altitude attacker, military officials believe the enemy would have the better hand.

But Seivert said the ground-attack method will be less hazardous as the forces begin the switch to the new F-18 Hornet, a twin-engine jet fighter suited for both high- and low-altitude warfare.

The Starfighter will be gradually phased out by the F-18. Sievert said the first squadron to change of to the F-18 will be at CFB Cold Lake, where pilot training will start next January [1984].

The three remaining squadrons using the Starfighter — all stationed in West Germany — will change to the F-18 over three, six-month periods starting in 1985.

The Senior Subaltern

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Sunday, 27 April 2014 12:46 PM EDT
Saturday, 10 May 2014

Loot in Arras
Topic: Discipline

Loot in Arras

Charles Yale Harrison; quoted in Vain Glory; A miscellany of the Great War 1914-1918, Guy Chapman, OBE, MC (Ed), 1937/1968

We halt. We are in one of the main streets. On both sides of the street are stores—grocery stores, tobacco shops, clothing stores, wine-shops.…

We ask our captain—a fidgety, middle-aged man by the name of Penny—why the town is deserted. He explains that the Germans dropped a few long-range shells into the city a few days ago, and the inhabitants, thinking that Heinie was about to enter, fled leaving the city as we now see it.…

As I stand talking to Broadbent a man in the company ahead of us idly kicks a cobble-stone loose from its bed. He picks it up and crashes it through a wide, gleaming shop window. … The soldier steps through the window and comes out with a basketful of cigarettes. He tosses packages to his comrades.

Another crash!

More men stream through the gaping windows.

Officers run here and there trying to pacify the men.

As far as I can see, men are hurling stones through windows and clambering in for supplies.

The street is a mass of scurrying soldiers.

Discipline has disappeared. …

"Do you know that this is looting a town?" Broadbent says.

"Of course it is."

"There will be merry hell to pay for this."

…A detachment of mounted English Military Police approach the town.

The police are our traditional enemies.

We organize a volunteer defence corps.

We post ourselves on the roofs of houses which overlook the road which leads into the city. We are armed with rifles, machineguns, hand-grenades.

As the police canter close to the town they are met with a burst of rifle-fire.

Two horses are hit and rear madly into the air. The M.P's draw rein and about face.

This is our first victory over the police. The retreat is greeted with cheers.

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Friday, 9 May 2014

Character and Leadership
Topic: Leadership

Infantrymen of Lieutenant D.S. Barrie's platoon of The Highland Light Infantry of Canada relaxing during a rest period, France, 20 June 1944. Location: France. Date: June 20, 1944.
Photographer: Ken Bell. Mikan Number: 3205673.
From the Library and Archives Canada virtual exhibit "Faces of War."

Character and Leadership

Canadian Army Training Memorandum, No 32, November 1943

1.     Leadership is a combination of qualities, inherent and acquired, which evoke respect, confidence, and a "will to do" from one's fellow men. A leader must know his work, be self-confident, determined and forceful display initiative, and think rapidly in critical and unexpected situations.

2.     Your men must instinctively look to you. To achieve this end, you must earn their respect, for your knowledge, for your assumption of responsibility, and for your decisiveness of action. If you know what you are doing, your self confidence will inspire the confidence and respect of your men and be mirrored in their actions.

3.     The strength of our army depends upon the calibre of its officers - they must be true Leaders. Assume the role of leader. Be definite, forceful, direct, be self-confident, resourceful, assume responsibility at all times, Look, Act, and be the Leader.

4.     An officer sets the example for his troops to follow; his clothes fit are neat and clean; his shoes are shined; his hair cut and combed; he is shaved; and in general, he presents an appearance which can well provide an example for others.

The Senior Subaltern

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Thursday, 8 May 2014

Last Mess Dinner of the 5th CMR
Topic: CEF

Last Mess Dinner of the Canadian Mounted Rifles

Officers gathered at Windsor Hotel to Honour Lt. Col. Rhoades
Tribute to Fallen
Ex-Commanding Officer Said Total casualties had been
107 Officers and 2,943 Men

The Montreal Gazette, 5 April, 1919

Many decorated heroes foregathered last evening at a dinner given at the Windsor Hotel by the returned officers of the 5th Canadian Mounted Rifles in honour of their ex-commanding officer, Lieut.-Col. W. Rhoades, D.S.O. (with bar), M.C., Croix de Guerre and Mons Star, also wearing the Queen's South Africa medal and the Coronation decoration.

The dinner was arranged as a reunion for the returned officers of the 5th C.M.R., and as a send-off to Lieut.-Col. Rhoades, who is leaving in a few days to take an appointment at the Royal Military College, Kingston.

The function took the form of a regulation mess dinner, and Major J.S.E. Todd, M.C., was mess president, with Lieut. J.J. Harold, M.C., as vice-president. Among those present were Major J. Hawson, M.C., Capt. Lelanne, M.C., Capt. H.S. Cox, M.C., Capt. H. Daubney, M.C., Capt. C.J. Hanratty, Capt, H.R. Gifford, M.C., Lieut. B. Porter, M.C., Lieut. L.A. Atto, M.C., and Lieuts. J.S. Gifford, R. Eberis, Dunning, and R. Poley, M.C. Amongst other guests were Lieut.-Col. G. Munroe of the 8th C.M.R., Ottawa; Lieut.-Col. Vipond, D.S.O., Brigade Major Campbell, D.S.O., M.C., Ottawa, Major Wilcox, Magog, and Lieut.-Col. Bradley, Sherbrooke.

Many Casualties

A warm reception was given Lieut.-Col. Rhoades when he rose to speak of the history of the Mounted Rifles and the splendid work they had done overseas. He remarked that the C.M.R. Had always worked together at the front as a happy family, officers and men always being willing to take their share of the hard work and hard knocks.

Lieut.-Col. Rhoades paid tribute to the memory of the late Lieut.-Col. Harry Baker, who organized the regiment, and died at its head, and the many other who had given their lives from the 5th C.M.R. During the war. He said that the regiment had lost 18 officers and 467 other ranks killed in action, while four officers and 150 other ranks had died of wounds. In addition to this the records showed missing or prisoners of war, four officers and 221 other ranks; wounded, 81 officers and 2,000 other ranks, making a total casualty list for the regiment during the war of 107 officers and 2,943 other ranks.

After giving these details, Lieut.-Col. Rhoades led a silent toast to the departed officers and men of the 5th C.M.R.

Following this brief speeches were given by Lieut.-Col. Vipond and Lieut.-Col. Munroe, who paid tribute to the late Major D'Arcy Smith, who was killed during a particularly daring raid on the enemy trenches.

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Wednesday, 7 May 2014

Armour Doctrine, 1916
Topic: Military Theory

Armour Doctrine, 1916

Colonel Ernest Swinton, as presented in The Evolution of Weapons and Warfare, Colonel T.N. Dupuy, 1980

Seven months before the commitment of British tanks, Colonel Ernest Swinton, one of the early protagonists of the tank, had proposed a doctrine for the employment of armor. In it he made these points.

1.     Some means of communication from commanders to tanks — other than through the telephone lines of accompanying infantry — should be worked out. (Swinton clearly envisaged radio. which was not yet sufficiently sophisticated to be installed in tanks.)

2.     Artillery and mines were most to be reared. The former should be attacked by support1ng aircraft and also taken under counter-battery fire.

3.     These machines "should not be used in driblets" (emphasis Swinton's). in order to keep their existence secret until sufficient were ready and their crews trained for "one great combined operation" (He vigorously protested the September 15 attack as premature. but was over-ruled. )

4.     The sector of attack should be carefully chosen to minimize the tank's limitations and enhance its capabilities.

5.     Approach to the line of departure should be at night from assembly areas not more than two miles back. The attack should start just before dawn.

6.     The tanks should precede the infantry by a distance sufficient to allow the enemy's rifle and machine-gun fire to be concentrated on the tanks when the infantry reached its attack objectives.

7.     Once the infantry arrived. the tanks should move onto the next trench line, bringing it under enfilade fire and attacking enemy reserves and bombing parties moving up.

8.     The tank attack should be in such Force that it could continue. without halting, through the enemy's arti1Iery positions (about l2 kilometers).

9.     The momentum necessary to achieve deep penetration in a single attack would require carefully planned logistical support to assure a continuing. adequate supply of fuel, ammunition, and other necessities.

10.     Smoke should be used to conceal the tank attack to the maximum extent possible.

To an armor officer today these concepts would seem elemental. But in l9l6, and for a long time thereafter. they seemed radical, based on undemonstrated theory, and inconsistent with the realities of contemporary warfare. As a matter of fact, Swinton somewhat overestimated the capabilities of the contemporary tank.

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Tuesday, 6 May 2014

Ada Andrews Kemp, Nursing Sister
Topic: Militaria

Ada Andrews Kemp, Nursing Sister

A Nurse's First World War Photo Album

Ada Andrews Kemp was born in Essex Co., England on 2 June 1895. She emigrated to Canada in 1903 as a Bernardo foster child, i.e,, an orphan, where she lived in Port Hope, Ontario, as a domestic servant to the family of Alexander Walsh.

Having trained as a nurse, Ada Kemp attested for overseas suervice in the First World War on 11 April, 1917, at the age of 21. She was sorn in as a nursing officer at the Toronto Base Hospital.

Throughout the war, Ada Kemp maintained a photo album. Containing over 200 photographs, the majority of them smal images taken with a personal camera, it shows glimpses of her experiences during the war and the people around her in the Hospitals where she served.

Although a detailed look at Ada's military service would require a copy of her service record, we can glean a few details from online searches of the London and Canada Gazettes:

  • Ada Andrews kemp was appointed to the rank of Nursing Sister on 11 April 1917 (Canada Gazette 23 Jun 1917)
  • Ada Kemp was awarded the Royal Red Cross, Second Class (London Gazette 23 Feb 1917)
  • In the post war Canadian Army, Ada was again appointed to the rank of Nursing Sister on 12 June 1919. (Canada Gazette 4 Oct 1919)
  • Ada Kemp's Attestation Paper

    Ada Kemp's Attestation Paper

    Ada Kemp's Entry in the Soldiers of the First World War Database at Library and Archives Canada:

    • Rank: NS
    • Date of Birth: 02/06/1895
    • Reference: RG 150, Accession 1992-93/166, Box 5069 - 5

    Nursing sisters from Port Hope (source)

    • Miss Emma Frances Elliott – Four years' Service - 1915 Star
    • Miss Harriet Gertrude Hudspeth – Four years' Service - Mons Ribbon
    • Miss Ada Kemp – Four years' Service
    • Miss Etta McLean – One year's Service
    • Miss Myrtle McMillan – Four years' Service
    • Miss Mary McNaughton – Four years' Service
    • Miss Edith Elgin McNaughton – Served with American Army
    • Miss Pansy Eva Roberts – Four years' Service
    • Miss Pearl Edna Wood – Four years' Service

    Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Monday, 5 May 2014

Advanced Driving and Maintenance School, Woodstock, ON
Topic: Drill and Training

Advanced Driving and Maintenance School, Woodstock, ON

Operation DISTINCTION is a series of commemorative events designed to honour Canada's proud military history, from the forging of an identity during the War of 1812 to the military excellence achieved during the Wars wars of the 20th century and the unprecedented changes that have occurred during contemporary global endeavours. Commemorative events began in 2012 and will continue until 2020 across Canada and in key international locations. (Source)

Over the next few years, Canada will be recognizing a variety of military anniversaries, including those of the First and Second World War. When many Canadian think of the conflicts of the 20th Century, their minds invariably turn to operations overseas, whether that be the trenches of France and Flanders, the hills of Sicily or the beaches of Normandy. Few, unless they have a direct connection, also think of the intense and widespread military efforts that took place in Canada during each war.

Ranging from Sam Hughes and the CEF building Camp Valcartier in 1914, to the many airfields of the Commonwealth Air Training Plan airfields all over the country, to the many temporary schools of instruction, camps sprung up all over Canada during the world wars to suport Canada's forces overseas (and on the seas). Many of these camps were dismantled as quickly as the returning forces were demobilized. Sold back to municipalities, or turned to other purposes, in short years the remaining buildings disappeared one by one, along with the memory of what had been there and what training took place in those camps.

In many cases, the last remaining vestiges of these camps are a few old news stories and photos, and the occasional discovery of a piece of evidence that they existed. The following images represent one such clue; during the Second World War, Woodstock, Ontario, was the home of No. 11 Advanced Driving and Maintenance School (A.D. & M.S.). On property now occupied by the racetrack, with perhaps the original structures of one or two buildings remaining under new exteriors, the Canadian Army trained officers and soldiers in the skills to keep Canada's mechanized army in the field and ready to fight.

No. 11 Advanced Driving and Maintenance School

No. 11 Advanced Driving and Maintenance School
Click for larger version.

See these images in the Woodstock Museum online collection:

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Sunday, 4 May 2014 5:07 PM EDT
Sunday, 4 May 2014

733146 Private William Tyler
Topic: The RCR

733146 Private William Tyler

A Canadian Soldier of the Great War

"Transferred to England for discharge as a MINOR."

Read the story of William Tyler's service on The Regimental Rogue.

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War

The Royal Canadian Regiment in the First World War

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Saturday, 3 May 2014

British Military Uniforms
Topic: Militaria

British Military Uniforms

British Military Uniforms, James Laver, 1948

We have now followed, in a necessarily abbreviated and inadequate fashion, the history of British Military Uniforms from their beginning, with the rise of professional armies, to their virtual extinction under the conditions of modern, mechanized warfare. What conclusions, if any, can we come to at the end of our enquiry?

An attempt has been made elsewhere to establish the fundamental principles governing the evolution of all costume. These would seem to be -

  • The Seduction Principle
  • The Hierarchical Principle
  • The Utility Principle

The first attempts to make the wearer of clothes as attractive as possible to the opposite sex. It is, in general, the governing principle of female costume, but it is not without influence on men's, and particularly on soldiers' dress. It widens the military man's shoulders, narrows his hips, puffs out his chest, lengthens his leg and increases his apparent height. It plays, therefore, before the days of conscription, an important part in recruiting. Many a man who took the King's shilling did so in the firm conviction that there is nothing like a smart uniform to attract the girls; nor was he often mistaken. The heightening of masculine characteristics might also be considered of value, at least in early days, in intimidating the enemy, but such considerations have long been obsolete. The second principle establishes social position. It is the general principle governing male dress. In military costume it shrinks into a rigid ritualism of rank.

The utility principle has comparatively little influence on civilian costume. In modern male civilian dress it produces a succession of 'sports' clothes which gradually formalize themselves until they are too uncomfortable to be worn for any active pursuit and have to be replaced by something 'easier'. The same is true of military costume.

In considering military uniforms, therefore, we can (having made due note of the succession of stars and crowns and stripes on sleeve and shoulder) ignore the hierarchical principle. Military uniform is a tug of war between the seduction principle (in the sense of the heightening of masculinity, and 'martial' bearing) and the utility principle. Given a long peace, the seduction principle triumphs and soldiers become more and more gorgeous, but a war, especially a long war brings the utility principle once more into operation. The invention of long-range firearms and the raising of immense armies have enormously increased the weight of the utility principle until to-day we may say that the lone tug of war over, at least so far as fighting troops are concerned.

We may therefore attempt to tabulate the following conclusions:

1.     Military uniforms are the appurtenances of Kings' Bodyguards and the professional armies that developed from them. Their history is therefore very short – little more than than two hundred years.

2.     They are founded on contemporary civilian dress, somewhat modified in the direction of toughness by the utility principle, and nearly always modified in the direction of gorgeousness by the seduction principle.

3.     Once established they seem to develop a life of the own, exaggerating all their characteristics to a degree fantasy not known in male civilian dress since the time of Charles II (that is, precisely, the period when uniforms began to develop).

4.     Every war tends to drag uniforms back to the utility principle, expressing itself in looseness (for ease in battle) and in camouflage. Modifications, therefore, are likely to be first seen in the dress of Light Infantry and auxiliary troops generally, and in those engaged in colonial warfare.

5.     Every army engaged in actual fighting is compelled, sooner or later, to develop its own battle dress. The uniform which it has discarded then becomes 'walking-out' dress, that is a 'smartened ' version of the battle dress' of the previous war.

6.     Ceremonial uniform is often the battle dress (formalized and fantasticated) of the last war but one. In the days of huge conscript armies this is only retained by Household troops (that is by the King's Bodyguard).

7.     The general colour of national uniforms (red for Britain, white for Austria, etc.) seems to be determined by accidents of history. That soldiers ever wore red because it did not show blood' (it does show it very clearly as a black stain) is a vulgar error. Once the utility principle has triumphed the colour of all uniforms is an attempt at camouflage.

8.     Military fashions are extremely imitative. The dress of any successful troops will be copied, especially in unessentials, and any victorious nation tends to impose some detail of its uniform on the armies of the world.

9.     Military headgear has two purposes: to protect the soldier's head and to increase his apparent height. The second purpose ruled almost exclusively, from the abandonment of the Cromwellian 'pot' to the First World War. The protection of the head (that is the utility principle) has now triumphed completely (the steel helmet once again) and the only consideration about the soldier's 'hat' is: how quickly and easily can it be stowed away?

10.     Cavalry uniforms follow certain peculiar lines of their own. They strive always for gorgeousness and display, and frequently develop decorations which make it impossible for their wearers to function as cavalry.

11.     All cavalry tends to become 'Heavy' cavalry, and as 'Light' cavalry is always needed in war, recourse is had to the services of 'Auxiliaries'. These have, in the past, generally come from the less settled lands of Eastern Europe, and as their skill on horseback is admired their uniforms are copied, first slavishly and then with increasing fantastication (as, for example, in the astonishing history of the Hussar).

12.     Mounted troops other than cavalry (for instance horse artillery) tend to adopt cavalry uniforms, with a marked preference for that of the Hussar.

13.     Modern uniforms are vestigial in two senses of the term: they have become on the one hand a parade, or walking-out dress, and on the other have shrunk to mere insignia of rank or to miniature badges of territorial or regimental loyalty – a button and a pip. Before an actual assault even these are often discarded. In modern warfare, therefore, the utility principle has triumphed completely and the dress of commandos and tank crews is no more a 'uniform' in the proper sense of the term than are the dungarees of factory hands.

14.     It is probable, however, that uniforms will continue to exist, paradoxically, as the costume of a soldier when he is not fighting.

The Senior Subaltern

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Friday, 2 May 2014

I am the Infantry
Topic: Tradition

I am the Infantry

US Army Infantry Journal, July 1956

I am the Infantry—Queen of Battle! I meet the enemy face to face … close with him and destroy him. For two centuries, I have been the bulwark of our Nation's defense. I am the Infantry! Follow me!

Hardship … and glory, I have known. My bleeding feet stained the snow at Valley Forge. With Washington, I crossed the Delaware … tasted victory at Yorktown … and saw our Nation born. I am the Infantry! Follow me!

At New Orleans, I fought beyond the hostile hour … discovered the fury of my long rifle … and came of age. I am the Infantry!

Westward, I moved with the covered wagon … marched with the empire across the plains … to far-flung outposts on the wild frontier. Follow me!

I went with Scott to Vera Cruz … battled Santa Anna in the mountain passes … and climbed the high plateau. I planted my flag in the Plaza of Mexico City. I am the Infantry!

From Bull Run to Appomattox my blood ran red. I served two masters … the Blue and the Grey … and united again under my banner of blue. I am the Infantry! Follow me!

I left these shores with the sinking of the Maine … led the charge up San Juan Hill … fought the Moro— and disease—in the Philippines. Across the Rio Grande, I chased the wily villain. Follow me! I am the Infantry!

At Chateau-Thierry, I went over the top. I stood like a rock on the Marne … cracked the Hindenburg line … broke the back of the Hun in the Argonne … and I didn't come back until it was "over, over here." I am the Infantry! Follow me!

At Bataan and Corregidor, I took a beating … licked my wounds and fought back. I invaded Tunisia on the African shore … dug my nails into the sand at Anzio … and marched into Rome with a flower in my helmet. I am the Infantry!

The channel and the hedgerow could not hold me. I broke out of the "Bulge" … jumped the Rhine … and took the Heartland. Follow me!

From island to island, I hopped the Pacific … hit the beaches … and chopped my way through swamp and jungle. I walked into the face of the Rising Sun. I am the Infantry! Follow me!

In Pusan perimeter I gathered my strength … crossed the frozen Han … marched to the Yalu. Along the 38th parallel … and around the world, I make my stand. I am the Infantry!

Wherever brave men fight … and die, for freedom, you will find me. I am the bulwark of our Nation's defense. I am always ready … now, and forever. I am the Infantry—Queen of Battle!

The Senior Subaltern

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT

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