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The Minute Book
Thursday, 24 July 2014
Principles of Survival Operations
Topic: Cold War

Principles of Survival Operations

In the event of a nucIear attack on North America, survival operations wouId become first priority tasks af all Regular and Militia units in Canada not engaged in the direct defence of the country. The Army would be joined in these operations by forces from the Royal Canadian Navy and the Royal Canadian Air Force.

From the Foreward by Lieut.-Gen. G. Walsh, Chief of the General Staff; CAMT 2-91 (May 1962)

Extracted from the Canadian Army Manual of Training; Survival Operations (1961), (Revised May 1962); CAMT 2-91

The following principles have been established for planning survival operations:

(1)     Speed in executing rescue operations is of paramount importance to the saving of life.

(2)     All forces not committed to active operations against enemy forces must be available for survival operations.

(3)     Maximum manpower must be brought to bear on rescue operations in time to be effective.

(4)     Survival plans must be flexible to take account of various wind and weather conditions and various attack patterns.

(5)     Surviva1 plans must be simple and must have been rehearsed so that effective operations may start on minimum orders, or in the absence of orders.

(6)     Equipment and commodities essential to survival operations must be located outside of probable target areas. Despite the vulnerability of units located inside target areas, plans must aim at their maximum use and must provide far their rapid outward movement to assembly areas.

(7)     Basic information needed to carry out re-entry operations must be collected beforehand and must be kept up to date.

(8)     Authority must be decentralized so that local commanders have the necessary powers to execute their assigned responsibilities in case of interrupted communication with higher headquarters.

(9)     Forces engaged in survival operations should be self-sufficient in essential commodities for the period of such operations. National reserves of equipment needed for survival operations must be decentralized because of expected transportation difficulties.

(10)     Forces engaged in survival operations may have to be relieved at an early stage in order to participate in active operations against the enemy or to conduct survival operations elsewhere in Canada.

(11)     Efforts will be directed towards ensuring that maximum warning of the likelihood of an attack is provided to elements of government and the civilian population. Similarly, dissemination of the TAKE COVER and FALLOUT warnings must be provided far on the highest possible priority.

The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Sunday, 29 June 2014 8:24 PM EDT
Wednesday, 23 July 2014
Listowel Armoury
Topic: Armouries

Listowel Armoury

Listowel, Perth County, Ontario

The data tabled below comes from forms maintained by the District Engineers of Military District No. 1 (which covered southwestern Ontario) on the Armouries and facilities in their district. The data on the transcribed forms was recorded in the 1940s and reflects the state and use of the buildings in that era. Some of the Armouries in use at that time continue to be the homes of local Reserve Force units, some have been repurposed, and others are long gone, the sites now home to other buildings. The area controlled by Military District No. 1 in the 1940s is now in the area of responsibility of 31 Canadian Brigade Group.

ALTTEXT

Welcome to Listowel, Ontario..

ALTTEXT

The Listowel Agricultural Society now occupies the Armoury.

ALTTEXT ALTTEXT ALTTEXT

The Listowel Armoury and the plaque set high in the front wall showing its date of construction.

ALTTEXT

A memorial display at the front of the Armoury.

ALTTEXT

A memorial bench at the rear of the Armoury.

NameListowel Armoury
CityListowel
CountyPerth
ProvinceOntario
Military DistrictM.D. No. 1
Electoral DistrictPerth
H.Q. FileH.Q 14-295-1; L. 75-2-79
Date1944
1.Building Ownership.Department of National Defence
2.If purchased, date, conditions, cost, etc., and value. 
3.If constructed, date and cost and what Department and value.Constructed in 1914. Cost not obtainable. Present value $10,000.
4.Description:— 
(a)Drainage, sewer and water connection. To be shown on site plan.Septic Tank, Town water supply.
(b)Foundation.Concrete and cement block.
(c)Walls.Brick and Stone.
(d)Roof framing.Wood truss.
(e)Roof covering (Type and date).Galv. Iron, 1914.
(f)Floor, main hall.Hardwood.
(g)Other floors.Hardwood.
(h)Partitions.Wood.
(i)Balconies.One end, 6' wide.
5.Miniature rifle range—Description.Four target range.
6.Bowling alleys, badminton courts, indoor baseball or other facilities for games.No.
7.Heating system— 
(a)General Description.Hor air furnace and stoves.
(b)Make and size heating apprs.Price Harriston Stove Co. #22.
(c)Fuel per annum.18 tons.
(d)Engineer and fireman specially employed.No.
8.Lighting system—General description.Modern electric.
9.Fire protection. Show position of standpipes in building, on site or on street plan.Town fire protection.
10.Caretakers— 
(a)Military or Civilian.Civilian
(b)Quartered in Armoury.No.
(c)Does he tend heating apprs.Yes.
11.Units in occupation.100th (R) Field Battery, R.C.A.
12.General condition (Adequate space or not).Adequate
Clothing, Equipment, fixtures (adequate or not). 
13.Any special remarks not included above.Adequate
14.Site— 
(a)Ownership.Department of National Defence
(b)How acquired, date, cost and present value.Purchased by D.N.D. From Town of Listowel 10 Oct 1913 for $1.00.
(c)Who holds deed.District Enginering Officer, M.D. No. 1, London, Ontario
(d)Size and area.3 acres
(e)Name of street and number of lot.Part Lot 41 Concession 1. Township of Elma.
(f)Fences, walks, and roadways on site.Yes.
(g)Surface—whether grass and whether kept in condition, and by whom.Grass by Caretaker.
(h)Is any part of site used for other than military purpose. Give details.No.
(i)Are there any other structures on site. If so give details.No.
(j)State nature of surface of roads, also sidewalks on adjoining street.Concrete roadway and sidewalk.
(k)Any remarks on site not included above.Site 1 mile from town.
15.Remarks. 

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Tuesday, 15 July 2014 7:22 PM EDT
Tuesday, 22 July 2014
Privilege to the Permanent Force
Topic: CEF

Privilege to the Permanent Force

Officers and Men Who Were Retained in Canada May Go Overseas

Their position has become invidious the more so as persons who did not appreciate the need in Canada, accustomed to the working of the military machine have reproached them for not going abroad, when as a matter of fact they had sought to do so and had been refused.

Montreal Gazette, 11 October 1918

Ottawa, October 10.—An order has recently been promulgated by the Militia Department for the purpose of doing justice to a number of officers, warrant officers, and non-commissioned officers of the permanent force who have been retained for service in Canada. By its terms the privilege of going overseas for service in France is granted to all in this position. If they are not senior to the rank of lieutenant colonel, they are not required to revert to a lower rank to obtain this privilege, officers of higher grade are required to revert to that grade.

To raise, organize, train and dispatch the Canadian Expeditionary Force overseas, a staff is necessary in Canada, alike at headquarters and in the various districts, camps and schools. Permanent officers and non-commissioned officers were particularly useful for service on these staffs, because they were familiar with military methods; numbers of them accordingly were retained in Canada against their will, to the detriment of their professional careers, because they were necessary, and in some cases indispensable for work at the base. These men were thus victims of their own efficiency. Their position has become invidious the more so as persons who did not appreciate the need in Canada, accustomed to the working of the military machine have reproached them for not going abroad, when as a matter of fact they had sought to do so and had been refused.

Garbled versions of this order have been circulated to the effect that it is to "compel" these officers and other ranks to go abroad. It does nothing of the kind. It confers on them the privilege of going abroad. The authorities only recently have been able to make this arrangement because qualified men who have been overseas are available for the work in Canada.

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Monday, 21 July 2014
Target Practice
Topic: Drill and Training

Target Practice

Regulations and Orders for the Active Militia The Schools of Military Instruction, and the Reserve Militia (in the cases therein mentioned) of the Dominion of Canada; 4th March 1870

Attention to these five simple rules, with some power of judging distance, and a knowledge of the influence of the wind on the flight of a bullet, is all that is required to enable a man to become a good practical shot.

170.     Officers commanding corps should avail themselves of every opportunity during the annual drills, to impart the necessary instruction in rifle shooting to those under their command; they should bear in mind that there is no difficulty or mystery in the matter; that to enable a man to learn rifle shooting, it is not necessary that he should got through a course of lectures on the theoretical principles of projectiles and musketry, it is sufficient to teach him:—

1st. Position Drill, which he can learn when being instructed in the Manual and Platoon Exercises.

2nd. That he should be shown and learn how to align the back and front sights of his rifle upon the object aimed at.

3rd. Not to wink or shut his eyes when he pulls the trigger.

4th. Not to pull the trigger with a jerk, but with a steady pressure of the finger,

5th. To hold the sight of the rifle perpendicularly, that is, inclining neither to the right nor to the left.

Attention to these five simple rules, with some power of judging distance, and a knowledge of the influence of the wind on the flight of a bullet, is all that is required to enable a man to become a good practical shot. The explosion of the charge has a tendency to throw muzzle up and bullet high; to counteract this, press center of heel plate firmly to shoulder. The sun shining from left, lights up right side of back notch, and left side of foresight; its these spots are aligned on the mark, the ball will go left, and vice versa.

171.     The allowance of ammunition for practice by corps armed with the Snider Enfield Rifle, during each year, will be 40 rounds of ball and 2 rounds of blank for each man actually effective, and the same may be drawn upon requisition of Commanding Officers through the Deputy Adjutant General of the District.

172.     Under no circumstances shall Practice with Ball Cartridges be engaged in, without the men in uniform and under the command of an officer or non-commissioned officer, who shall be held responsible for the proper conduct of the party. After firing, at target practice, Commanding Officers will require every man to clean his rifle before returning it to the Company's arm racks.

173.     Militiamen are forbidden to tamper with or injure the arms issued for their use. Should alterations or repairs be required, they must be effected by a competent armourer or mechanic.

174.     Officers commanding corps are required to keep careful and accurate returns of all Target Practice, in accordance with forms provided from the office of the Adjutant General of Militia, and may be obtained upon application to the Brigade Major in each Division.

175.     Officers commanding corps will be careful that each man under their command shall within each year fire at target practice the number of round authorized for such purpose, and he will see that no individual volunteer expends more of the practice ammunition than his fair share.

176.     Ammunition authorized for annual target practice of any corps, is not to be used at rifle matches, other than those between members of the Corps to which ammunition is issued.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Sunday, 20 July 2014
The RCN Rum Ration
Topic: RCN

The RCN Rum Ration; Reviewed, Retained, Ended

The Montreal Gazette;
14 December, 1939

Rum Ration Retained

Ottawa, December 13. — CP — Men of the Royal Canadian Navy, and other branches of Canada's Active Service Forces may well say "Heave ho, my hearties" today for that ration of rum is to be continued. After examination by Government experts a proposal to substitute brandy for the traditional rum ration has been squelched.

The Maple Leaf;
17 February, 1945

Where Does It Go?

Ottawa — (CP) — An increasing number of Canada's seamen are passing up their daily rum ration in lieu of the alternative five cents, Navy Minister Macdonald disclosed. He said he believed the figures stood at about 60 per cent temperate, 40 per cent "grogs." The men are given the opportunity to change their minds on the subject every four months.

The News and Courier;
15 May 1955

Canadian Navy's Rum Ration Hit

Winnipeg, Man., May 14 — (AP) — The daily ration of rum for members of the Canadian navy should be discontinued, the Manitoba Temperance Alliance said in a resolution adopted at its annual meeting.

1949

The Montreal Gazette; 2 November, 1949

Canadian Navy Advised to Review Age-old Custom of Rum Rations

Ottawa, Nov. 1 — (CP) — Naval authorities were asked today to review the question of serving alcoholic beverages aboard ships of the RCN and to make a report on the matter to Defence Minister Claxton.

The request came in the report of the commission which investigated incidents aboard the aircraft carrier Magnificent and the destroyers Athabaskan and Crescent last February and March.

The commission itself expressed no opinion on the system of wardroom privileges for officers and a daily tot of rum issued to ratings or, in lieu, a cash payment.

"We believe that if any change is to take place, it should not be imposed by an outside authority but should be the result of a careful assessment of all factors by the Navy itself,: the report said.

During its sittings, the commission heard a number of proposals, including abolition of alcoholic drinks on board Canadian ships, adoption of the American system whereby beer is issued to the men and officers are allowed to buy drinks at shore prices; and abolition of all drinks while the ship is at sea.

The first of these proposals would introduce the United States Navy system into the RCN—a strict ban on alcohol for both officers and men.

The report noted that the Canadian system at present was inherited from the British navy from "age-old customs" and that during tropical cruises the custom of making and issue of beer to the men has been followed occasionally.

"It is generally argued by advocates of the present system," the report said, "that it has long been accepted by and acceptable to all ranks; that it has not been abused' that it is a fair reflection at sea of the privileges of men on shore and that it helps to strengthen the self-discipline of officers and men.

"The American system, on the other hand, is alleged to contribute to law-breaking at sea and to over-indulgence on shore.

"On the other hand, evidence was offered that the differential privileges of officers and men occasionally but infrequently are met with a measure of dissatisfaction on the lower decks and that the issue of alcohol was responsible for many of the disciplinarily troubles on board ship…"

1972

The Montreal Gazette; 31 Mar 1972

Main brace spliced for the last time

Halifax — (CP) — No more will sailors in the Canadian navy get their daily rum tot. The issue of 2 ½ ounces of dark rum was given yesterday for the last time, ending a naval tradition that dates back to 1667.

"Splice the main brace" is a naval order usually reserved for an extremely special occasion like a victory at sea of a duty well performed.

It brings about a double rum ration to all sailors of the fleet.

Rear-Admiral R.W. Timbrell commander Maritime Command, gave the order to "splice the main brace" yesterday and the traditional ceremony went out in style.

With all hands mustered to the afterdeck of the destroyer Kootenay, the tots of dark rum were drawn for the last time.

Tradition

When everyone had the traditional rum issue from the regulation oak tub that Cmdr Jim Creech obtained for the occasion, he spoke briefly of the tradition which is being eliminated in favour of facilities for wine, spirits and beer on the vessels.

From the oaken keg bearing the burnished brass inscription, "The Queen, God bless her," the hands got their second tot and then drank to the Queen's health.

Then Cmdr Creech pulled the final tot from the tub and, with the naval band providing the music, poured it over the side.

Last December former defence minister Donald Macdonald announced that the Canadian navy would follow similar steps by the Royal Navy and end the rum ration.

The tradition of a daily issue of one part of overproof rum to two parts water — though latterly a cola was used — has been followed by the British navy for three centuries and the Canadian navy wince it came into being in 1910.

It became known by a variety of names including "Nelson's blood."

When British Admiral Lord Vernon, known as "old Grog" because of a coat he wore, ordered the rum cut with two parts of water, it became known as grog.

But the name "Nelson's blood" was somewhat more colorful. The term is believed to have roots in the historic fact that after Admiral Nelson was killed at Trafalgar, his body was shipped home preserved in a barrel of spirits.

When the barrel arrived in England, Nelson was in it, but the spirits, it is said, were not.

The spirits might have leaked out, but there is supporting evidence that sailors took the opportunity to tipple on the sly.

The Royal Navy upheld the tradition of "tapping the admiral" until last summer when it announced that more popular alcoholic beverages would replace the rum. Canada decided to follow the same line. The rum was issued just before the noon meal aboard navy ships and cost the government $363,000 a year including sales and excise taxes.


HMCS Rainbow

The Saturday Citizen, 1 April, 1972

Sailors take final swig of daily rum

Victoria (CP) — Servicemen dressed in period naval costumes and carrying dummy coffin containing six bottles of rum, paraded somberly through the dockyard Thursday at the Canadian Forces base in nearby Esquimalt.

The brief ceremony marked the death of the daily rum ration for the Canadian forces.

As the coffin carriers, members of the submarine HMCS Rainbow, completed their procession, Rear-Admiral Richard Leir, commander, Pacific Maritime Forces, called a "splice the main brace."

This allowed all the sailors aboard ships in the harbor to hoist their final tot of rum.

The daily tot of rum is a naval tradition dating back to the 1600s. Last year the British government decided to discontinue the practice for the Royal Navy and the Canadian navy followed suit.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Saturday, 14 June 2014 1:07 PM EDT
Saturday, 19 July 2014
Post-War Permanent Force Set-Up
Topic: Canadian Army

Post-War Permanent Force Set-Up

The Maple Leaf, 6 November 1945

Ottawa—(CP)—Indications that formations in Canada's peacetime permanent army will not differ except in size from those of prewar years were given in the Commons by Defence Minister Abbott during a study of army estimates.

He said the postwar force of between 20,000 and 24,000—prewar strength was only 5,000—would consist of a brigade group augmented by two armored regiments and one medium artillery battery. In addition there would be the usual administration and training elements including a coastal battery on each coast and composite anti-aircraft battery.

"The main element of that proposed brigade groups would consist of headquarters, three infantry battalions, field artillery regiment of three batteries and an anti-tank battery and field company of engineers together with signals, medical and staff units, maintenance workshops and other essential elements,' said Mr. Abbott.

In reply to questions Mr. Abbott said Canada hopes to obtain a ship specially equipped to bring wives and children of service men from the United Kingdom. He also stated veterans' guard companies will continue to be used as long as useful employment can be found for them.

"CAAF" and "CARP" are alphabetic designations that may become familiar when organization of Canada's post-war military set-up is finally complete. Defence Minister Abbott suggested that the regular army be called Canadian Army Active Force, and the Reserve be called Canadian Army Reserve Force. Prewar army was known as the Permanent Force while reserve bore the title of Non-Permanent Active Militia.

The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Friday, 18 July 2014
Military Definitions
Topic: Humour

Esprit-de-Corps

The art of abusing every regiment but your own.

Military Definitions

Published in The Patrician (Journal of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry), Vol. IV, No. 3, October, 1937, as taken from "The Antelope" (Journal of the Royal Warwickshire Regiment) for November, 1935

The following military definitions were extracted from among the papers of the late Brig.-Gen. G.N.B. Forster, CMG, DSO, and have been contributed by his wife.

A.

Adjutant: An officer whose duties consist in flattering the Colonel, flirting with his wife, nursing his children and swearing at the men.
Aide-de-Camp Ditto on a more extended scale.
Arrest: A very pleasant state of temporary retirement from the duties and the annoyances of the profession.

B.

Barracks Damage: A poetical title for the rent paid by officers for their dog-holes. Battalion Drill: Agony on a large scale.

Brig.-Gen. G.N.B.Forster, DSO

George Norman Bowes Forster was born in October 1872. Educated at The United Services College, Westward Ho!, and the RMC Sandhurst. Commissioned in 1893, he joined the Royal Warwickshire Regiment, and served in the Nile Expedition of 1898 (present at the Battles of Atbara and Khartoum) and served in the South African War from 1899 to 1902. He was Adjutant of the 1st Battalion of his regiment between 1902 and 1904.

Early in the First World War, Forster went to France with the 7th Battalion, rising in rank to command it. Wounded twice, he was also awarded the DSO. In August 1917 he was appointed to command the 42nd Infantry Brigade (part of 14th (Light) Division).

On 4 Apr 1918 his brigade HQ was overrun near Villers Bretonneux, Brig.-Gen. Forster was reported missing. Brig.-Gen. Forster has no known grave, he is commemorated on the Pozieres Memorial.

C.

Cavalry: A branch of the Service, useful in promoting the smell of stables in drawing-rooms.
Colonel: An individual with brass spurs and an exaggerated estimate of his own importance.
Company Drill: Agony on a small scale.
Court-Martial: A military tribunal in which the judges, like a bull in a china shop, have it all to themselves.

D.

Dress (v.a): To force a given number of soldiers into one continuous straight line by means of loud vociferations and strong personal abuse.
Drill (v.a): To arrange human beings in unnatural positions and unornamental figures.

E.

Ensign: An emancipated schoolboy.
Esprit-de-Corps: The art of abusing every regiment but your own.

F.

Field Day: A given number of hours of misery.

G.

General: A military biped, much addicted to long stories.
Goose-step: A painful mode of standing on one leg.

H.

Household Troops: Gentlemen at large.

I.

Infantry: A branch of the service, useful in macadamizing roads.
Inspection, half-yearly: An opportunity afforded by custom to soldiers of seeing a live general twice a year.

K.

Knapsack: An ingenious contrivance invented for the purpose of exemplifying how little it is possible to get in a square box.

L.

Leave of Absence: Gentlemanly existence, and very pleasant when you get it.

M.

Mess: A regimental victualling establishment instituted for the purpose of placing inebrity within reach of officers of modest income.
Mufti: A description of costume worn by officers when they wish to be taken for gentlemen.

N.

Non-commissioned officer: A person whose duty it is to furnish the captain with the words of command on field days.

O.

Officer: An unhappy victim of delusion.

P.

Padre: The Protestant appellation of purgatory.
Promotion: A word fallen into disuse, but used among the ancients to signify a rise from one grade to another.

Q.

Quarters (officers): Inferior sort of dog-kennels.

R.

Recruit: A speedily to be undeceived dupe.
Roster: A fabulous list of rotation, on which you are always first for duty and last for elave.

S.

Shop: The discussion of obnoxious topics military.
Soldier of fortune: A penniless officer.
Soldier (private): One who consents to dress himself in a grotesque costume and perform various diverting manoeuvres for a small daily stipend.
Square: A military figure formed by soldiers productive of considerable inconvenience to the toes of officers during the time of peace … and of still greater to the cavalry of the enemy in time of war.
Subaltern: An individual placed by fate in a position very inadequate to his merits.

T.

Transport: A vessel having been condemned for pigs and cattle, is appropriated by the Admiralty for the conveyance of troops.

U.

Unanimity: That feeling in a regiment which entitles a brother officer (however cordially you may detest him) to smack you on the back and call you a "brick" with impunity.
Uniform: A dress, only varying from a footman's livery inasmuch as you do not receive quite such high wages for wearing it.

V.

Veteran: A man who holds your button and bores you with "Badajos."
Volunteer: A man of weak intellect.

W.

War: A noisy and unpleasant substitute for democracy.

X.

(Doubled): A liquor drunk by officers in hot countries.

Y.

Yard (Barrack): An enclosed space set apart for the amusement and recreation of defaulters.

Z.

Zeal: A sort of disease, formerly prevalent, but now almost obsolete.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Friday, 18 July 2014 12:06 AM EDT
Thursday, 17 July 2014
Canada's Military Force (1896)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Canada's Military Force (1896)

The Quebec Saturday Budget, 17 October, 1896

The establishment list of the military force in Canada for 1896-97 shows a total as follows:…

Permanent Force:…

  • Cavalry, all ranks, 145 men and 101 horses,
  • Artillery, 34 men and 78 horses,
  • Infantry, 316 men and 4 horses.

Or a total of 495 men and 183 horses.

Active Militia:…

  • Cavalry, all ranks, 2,295 men and 2,099 horses,
  • Artillery, 4,018 men and 835 horses
  • Infantry, 28,062 men and 354 horses

Total, 35,497 man and 3,288 horses.

There is a slight decrease in the Royal Canadian Dragoons and Royal Canadian Artillery, while the Royal Regiment of Canadian Infantry is reduced from 592 to 316, a loss of 276, all ranks.

In the active militia the cavalry has been increased by some 200, while in the field batteries the increase is still more marked, 389 officers and men being added and 34 guns with their carriages, etc. The Garrison Artillery remains about the same, but there is quite and increase in the infantry forces.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Wednesday, 16 July 2014
Tips From the Front 1943
Topic: The Field of Battle

A PIAT (Projectile Infantry Anti-Tank) in action at a firing range in Tunisia, 19 February 1943. Imperial War Museum image NA 756. Photographer: No 2 Army Film & Photographic Unit; Loughlin (Sgt).

A Few "Tips From the Front" (A.T.M. 4-5)

Canadian Army Training Memorandum, No 29, August 1943

Here is a letter from a Platoon Commander on the Tunisian Front to a friend now training at home. He explains in vivid detail precisely how a Platoon Commander should get down to his job if he and his Platoon are to stand up to the test of action.

Finally, remember that "there are bad officers but no bad troops". This is horribly true. We have often seen it out here—indifferent men fighting magnificently under a first-class officer, and vice versa. It does make you realize what a vitally important job you've got. Motto: "It all depends on me."

Dear Tom:

You asked in your letter for a few "tips from the front". The answer is that we have learnt precious little from actual fighting that is not taught in the normal battle school type of training, but, of course, the penalty for breaking the rules is direct and unpleasant, so one learns a bit more quickly and permanently than in England.

In attack, get your platoon going on location of fire, observation, and intelligent use of what information you have got. Our tendency earlier on (and it wasn't altogether the platoon commander's fault) was to rush into the attack without a really thorough recce, and without going through with the NCOs every bit of information we had about the enemy's positions. Once you're in it, it's hell's own game trying to see where the bullets are coming from, unless you have a fair idea where the swine ought to be. Even then it's not so easy.

We have lost a lot of officers through platoon commanders being too eager and moving right up with their leading sections. You can fight your platoon a darned sight better by staying in a position from which you can manoeuvre your reserve (i.e., your two rear sections), when you have seen what fire is drawn by the leading section. The same, of course, applies to company commanders. Practise lots of frontal attacks—pepper pot, etc. Boche positions are so invariably mutually supporting that platoon flanking attacks are damned hard, especially as the bloke you are after is probably supported by MMG fire from somewhere out of range of your LMG.

Approach marches are important. You nearly always have several miles to cover, probably in the dark, before you reach the place from which the attack starts. The condition in which your men reach that assembly area is going to make a whole lot of difference to their performance when the big moment comes. If the march has been a scramble, and they are rushed into the attack as soon as they arrive, morale will be low. If the march has been orderly, with plenty of time to check up on everything and rest the men at the assembly area, they will start off confident and know what they are playing at.

How to Hit Back

Defence took rather a back seat at home—we were supposed to be "Assault troops"—but, assault troops or not, 95 per cent of your time will be spent in defence, because whenever you are not actually attacking you have to be in a position to defend yourself. So it is well worth studying. The Boche are cleverer at it than we are.

However huge an area of country you are given, in placing your troops imagine You have only three-quarters of your platoon. Put your spare quarter aside as a mobile reserve; then forget all the books and put the rest wherever your common sense and your knowledge of Boche habits tells you. Whenever possible, you want to be on reverse slopes—any movement on forward slopes brings the shells down, and it is not easy to stay still all day. If the ground forces you to take up forward slope positions, keep the absolute minimum at battle posts to observe, and the rest in cover until you are attacked. It is then that your fire control comes in. The first time, unless you drum it in daily, everyone will blaze off at any range at the first Boche to appear, giving all your positions away. It is much more satisfying to let the Jerries come up a bit and catch them in numbers on some open patch. If by chance they knock out one of your posts and start getting in among you, then you thank God for that quarter you kept in reserve and nip in your counter-attack straight away. If you have got a counter-attack properly rehearsed with supporting fire, etc., for each of your posts, you should be able to get it in almost as soon as they arrive, or, better still, get them in a flank as they advance.

In defence by night, the section sentry wants to be manning the Bren in the same trench as the NCO. On the side of the trench he has the section commander's tommy gun, a couple of grenades, and a verey pistol with plenty of cartridges—so he is ready for anything. If a Boche patrol attacks, they will let off lashings of automatic fire at random, to draw yours, and when they retire it will be under cover of mortars. The answer is—stay still and hold your fire until you can pick a certain target. At Djebel Abiod we were attacked by a patrol some fifteen strong. They fired literally thousands of rounds without causing a casualty. We fired about twenty rounds, and lolled an officer and two O.Rs. I do not think it is worth chasing a retiring patrol—they want you to leave your trenches, so as to catch you with their mortars. You could possibly guess their line of retreat and chase them with your own mortar fire.

How to Patrol

The best patrolling troops we have come across are the Moroccan Goums, whose success as compared with any Europeans is quite phenomenal. Even against the best of the Germans they never fail. Why are they better than us? Firstly, because they are wild hillmen and trained as warriors from birth, but also because the preparation of their patrols is done with such detailed thoroughness. No fighting patrol is sent out until its leaders have spent at least a day watching the actual post they are after, and recceing exact routes, etc. And if they are not satisfied at the end of the day they will postpone the patrol and spend another day at it. We are rather too inclined to think of a patrol at teatime and do it the same night. It is not so easy as that. To be worth a candle, a fighting patrol must start off with an odds-on chance of two to one, not six to four or evens, but a good two to one bet. To make this possible, your information has got to be really good and up to date. As regards composition of fighting patrols there is a wide divergence of opinion, but in this battalion we go on the principle of maximum fire power with minimum man power, and our patrols have usually consisted of an officer, an NCO, and nine men, i.e., an assault group of an officer, three bombers, three tommy gunners, and a support group of an NCO and three Bren gunners. The type of recce patrol that has produced the best result is the officer or serjeant, and two who go out by night, lie up, and observe all day and return by night.

Slit trenches deserve a paragraph all to themselves. A few days after we landed we spent literally a whole day at Tabarka being dive-bombed and machine-gunned from the air. This went on intermittently all the following week at Djebel Abiod, plus more than enough shelling. Since then the men have dug slit trenches automatically, even if they arrive at a place soaking wet at three in the morning—and they are a full 5-ft deep, too. Anyone will tell you tales of miraculous escapes due to slit trenches—shells landing a couple of feet away without hurting the bloke inside, etc. I do not think you could ever shell this battalion out of a position, if only because they know they are safer in slit trenches than out of them.

Incidentally, machine-gunning from the air is perfectly bloody—worse than bombing or shelling. The accuracy of it is something I never imagined. An unopposed fighter can guarantee to hit a solitary car. But, again, if you have got slit trenches, casualties from it are "nix" and you find that, after all, the noise was the worst part of it.

The Boche does much more air recce than we do. Every morning "Gert and Daisy" take a look at us, and if camouflage is bad I suppose a photo of our positions goes into the album. You can almost tell how long a unit has been out here by looking at its camouflage.

It is worth learning something about anti-tank mines. There are usually plenty to be had, and if all your men can lay them you are ready for the tanks almost as soon as you get into a new position. If you have to wait for the REs to lay them, you may never be. All our men carry Hawkins grenades.

A Strict Routine

Somebody once said, "Warfare consists of boredom punctuated by odd moments of excitement". This is absolute rot. When you're living out in shocking weather with nothing but a gas cape over your head and thirty men look to you to censor their letters, dish out NAAFI stuff, make the best of the rations, get them kit from the "Q" there's too much to do to get bored. When you in turn have got to see they are always ready to fight, that they are in good heart, that they are clean and healthy, and that the NCOs are doing their jobs, you may get browned off but never bored. Discipline is the hardest and most important thing to keep going. You and the NCOs are 24 hours a day with the men, and it's almost bound to slacken off if you're not on your guard. I find the best way is to keep a strict routine however shocking the conditions, i.e., washing and weapons clean by ? hours, meals at ? hours, etc. If you keep a firm hold on the men over these small day-to-day things, you'll find you've got them right under control when the trouble starts.

Finally, remember that "there are bad officers but no bad troops". This is horribly true. We have often seen it out here—indifferent men fighting magnificently under a first-class officer, and vice versa. It does make you realize what a vitally important job you've got. Motto: "It all depends on me."

Cheerio,

Paul

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Tuesday, 15 July 2014
Hints on Skirmishers (1870)
Topic: Drill and Training

Duties of Flank and Rear Guards

Hints on Skirmishes

Regulations and Orders for the Active Militia The Schools of Military Instruction, and the Reserve Militia (in the cases therein mentioned) of the Dominion of Canada 4th March 1870

Should the Rear Guard be hard pressed, every wood, fence, bridge, or defile, should be defended with the greatest vigour and obstinacy.

342.     Skirmishers (with supports and a reserve if necessary) can be extended to protect the flanks of a column; when so extended they move by the flank inclination of their files in a direction parallel to the advance of the column, their supports corresponding with such movements. Whenever the column is halted flank guards face outwards.

343.     Should the column have to retreat and the rear guard become engaged in disputing the ground with the enemy, the flanking parties must be particularly on the alert to check any attempt on the enemy's part to steal round and turn the flanks, which it may be presumed a pursuing enemy will always endeavour to do.

344.     It may be often desirable, with the view of searching ground more effectually, to move the flanking line of skirmishers, properly supported, in prolongation of the skirmishers of the advanced guard, and retired into direct echelon.

345.     It is the duty of Rear Guards acting in concert with the flanking parties, to protect the rear and flanks of the column from sudden attack, to secure the safety of the baggage, and to bring on stragglers. Rear Guard is usually kept closer to the main body than an Advanced Guard, the mode of forming it is to be found in the Drill Book, its strength and composition must depend u|)on circumstances and the nature of the country, also, whether the Column is engaged in making a forward movement, or in retiring before a superior force, in the latter case there is no duty that demands more skill, judgement, courage, and determination on the part of the Commanding Officer and men under his command.

Infantryman, Canadian Volunteer Militia, 1863-1870

This volunteer wears the full dress uniform authorized for the Canadian Volunteer Militia in 1863. Few units would have worn the shako shown in this image, substituting the inexpensive (and far more comfortable) forage cap. The style is generally similar to that worn by British regular infantry, with the white-metal buttons and badges commonly used by militia units within the British empire. Reconstruction by Ron Volstad. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Source page.

Canadian Military History Gateway

346.     Every Rear Guard should be provided with axes and entrenching tools, in order to have the means of breaking up roads, blocking up defiles and bridges, intrenching positions, and throwing obstacles in the way of a pursuing enemy; a few trees judiciously felled across a road at well chosen spots, may cause considerable delay to the enemy and check pursuit.

347.     When in actual presence of the enemy a retreat is usually conducted by the successive retirement of skirmishers on their supports, who have previously been extended, if possible under cover, fresh supports being thrown out from the reserve, and thus the whole may be withdrawn in succession from point to point, sheeting the most advantages positions which the nature of the ground along the line of retreat may afford.

348.     Should the Rear Guard be hard pressed, every wood, fence, bridge, or defile, should be defended with the greatest vigour and obstinacy.

349.     If there be cavalry or guns with the Rear Guard they should be brought into use, in order to support and relieve the Infantry, wherever circumstances may render it desirable, and the nature of the ground will admit.

350.     When skirmishing,men should remember that in the field an enemy will be opposed to them, whose business is to keep himself as much as possible under cover at the same time that he them whenever they expose themselves.

351.     Two lines of skirmishers opposed to each other on smooth ground, and keeping their lines properly dressed, are never seen in a real fight. All that is required is that the men of a line of skirmishers should be in such communication that they are able to afford each other a mutual support. In advancing across open and unbroken ground, the line will be maintained with more or less regularity, because there is no inducement to break the order

352.     Where ground is broken, so as to afford cover some parts and not in others, the files advancing over the unbroken ground, should observe a regular line; but those files which may have in front of them any ground where cover is to be obtained, such as a hillock, or a clump of trees, or rocks, should dash forward to seize it at their utmost speed, notwithstanding that by so doing they may place themselves in advance of the general line by 30 or 40 paces.

353.     If the enemy is in possession of this vantage ground, a dash to dispossess him of it should be made, by the converging at full speed of such a number of files as will serve to drive him out. If you succeed in doing so, you establish a post in the midst of the enemy's lines, and he must fall back, because you flank him on both sides, while your general line advancing occupies him in front. If the enemy's skirmishers are sheltered by a hedge, ditch, bank or any other line affording cover, a quick officer will select the weakest point in the enemy's line for attack, and will direct a number of files to converge on that point at full speed sufficient to overcome resistance. In this way again a post will have been established in the midst of the enemy's line, which will flank him to right and left, while your general line advancing will occupy him in front.

354.     Skirmishers advancing in the open should consider no inequality or accident of ground too insignificant to afford shelter of some sort, if it does not protect one part of the body, it will another. Thus even a large stone should be made use of, and a small tree stump may save a man's life.

355.     In wood fighting no man should fire except from close behind a tree; after delivering his fire,he must load under cover of the same tree and when loaded, he will select a tree in advance, and then dash up to it suddenly—and so on. Experienced skirmishers in a wood will establish a footing in this way often close to the enemy's general line. And if this is done and maintained, the enemy's line must go back.

366.     Skirmishers when holding ground in the open where there is no cover, should lie down, their supports and Reserve, when within range of fire and no cover available for them, conforming to that movement.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Sunday, 22 June 2014 2:35 PM EDT
Monday, 14 July 2014
The Royal Canadian Regiment at Halifax (1900)
Topic: The RCR

Blasts from the Trumpet!

The Royal Canadian Regiment at Halifax

The Daily Telegraph, 14 July 1900

General Order 28
Provisional Battalion to Garrison Halifax, N.S.


One piece gilt officer's badge.
One piece brass soldier's badge.

It is believed that these one-piece versions of the 1894 pattern cap badge of The Royal Canadian Regiment were worn by the 3rd (Special Service) Battalion.

From all accounts Lieut.-Col. Geo. Robt White, who is in command of the Third Battalion, Royal Canadian Regiment, at Halifax, is working hard to make it a success in every sense and his efforts are meeting with a reward, evidently, if one may judge from the part the corps took in the mobilization manoeuvres on July 2, which lasted all day, the bulk of the work falling to the Canadians, and they did very well indeed. They marched out of the barracks 727 strong and all ranks looked well, in fact could compare favorably with any regular regiment, which is due in a large measure to the hard work of Lieut.-Col. White, but to Capt. Betty, R.C.R.I. adjutant, and especially to Sergeant-Major Butelier, formerly attached to the R.C.R.I. at this depot, who is not only a good soldiers, bout one of the best drilled men in the military force of the Dominion.

The attack for the Dominion Day manoeuvres was well planned and was under the supervision of the D.O.C., Lieut.-Col. Irving, who had the Halifax militia, infantry and artillery with him, while the defence was composed of the R.C.R., a company of engineers and a few Royal Artillerymen. As already stated, the bulk of the work fell on the provisional regiment and they did so well as to merit the compliments of the highest in authority.

The movements of both forces were closely watched by Colonel Biscoe, Lieut.-Col. Farmer, Lieut.-Col. White, Major Semini, Major Roberts and Capt. Ward, whose duty it was to criticize the tactics of the forces.

The operations covered a very wide area and the troops had their work cut out for them. Capt. O'Farrell was in command of "E" Company. Lieut.-Col. Taschereau in command of "F" Company, and Capt. Sharples "G" Company.

The regiment has not yet been supplied with helmets, which is a drawback, but these have been ordered from England for some time, their early arrival is expected, and will add considerably in the appearance of the force. Now that the regiment is so well organized and is a credit to the Government and country, it would be a great pity to see it disbanded, and especially since the outbreak of the trouble in China. It is well known that an effort is being made in that direction, but it is expected the Minister of Militia will see the folly of such a move and that the Third (Special Service) Battalion, R.C.R., will be allowed to live for several years at least. It is serving the purpose of educating out young men in the military art which will stand them in good stead in the future, besides guarding the garrison city of Halifax while the Imperial troops are fighting in South Africa, and at the close of the campaign there it is likely their services will be required elsewhere.

The following facts regarding the regiment will, no doubt, be read with interest:—

The corps is comprised of eight companies of 121 men each. Seven companies are in Halifax and one in Esquimault. The sum of $2,100 is paid out every month to the men of each company, in three payments. The rate of pay is as follows:—

  • Commanding Officer; $4.86 per day.
  • Majors; $3.90 per day.
  • Adjutant; $2.50 per day.
  • Lieutenants; $2.30 per day.
  • Sergeant-Major; $1.25 per day.
  • Staff Sergeants; $0.80 per day.
  • Color-Sergeants; $0.90 per day.
  • Sergeants; $0.75 per day.
  • Corporals; $0.60 per day.
  • Privates; $0.50 per day.

From the regimental pay the sum of 15¢ is deducted from each man's pay every month for washing; 10¢ for library and recreation, and 4¢ for hair cutting.

In addition to the deduction of the above amounts every month, 5¢ is charged per day for each man for messing, that is, extra rations, and 14¢ per day while he is in hospital to cover medial attendance, dainties, etc.

The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Sunday, 13 July 2014
Chatham Armoury
Topic: Armouries

Chatham Armoury

Chatham, Kent County, Ontario

The data tabled below comes from forms maintained by the District Engineers of Military District No. 1 (which covered southwestern Ontario) on the Armouries and facilities in their district. The data on the transcribed forms was recorded in the 1940s and reflects the state and use of the buildings in that era. Some of the Armouries in use at that time continue to be the homes of local Reserve Firce units, some have been repurposed, and others are long gone, the sites now home to other buildings. The area controlled by Militay District No. 1 in the 1940s is now in the area of responsibility of 31 Canadian Brigade Group.

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A contemporary postcard of the Chatham Armoury.

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The Armoury today (June 2o14).

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Chatham Armoury - Basement.

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Chatham Armoury - First Floor.

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Chatham Armoury - Ground Floor.

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Map showing location of Armoury and Tecumseh Park.

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The interior of the Armoury today (June 2014).

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Thecurrent occupants of the Chatham Armoury, RBC Dominion Securities and Four Diamond Catering (June 2014).

NameChatham Armoury
CityChatham
CountyKent
ProvinceOntario
Military DistrictM.D. No. 1
Electoral DistrictKent
H.Q. FileL. 13-4-22
Date31 March 1944
1.Building Ownership.Department of National Defence
2.If purchased, date, conditions, cost, etc., and value. 
3.If constructed, date and cost and what Department and value.(Class "B") Built in 1905 by Department of Public Works. Cost - $65,957.00. Present value - $80,000.
4.Description:— 
(a)Drainage, sewer and water connection. To be shown on site plan. 
(b)Foundation.Stone and Brick, Cement floors throughout basement.
(c)Walls.Red brick and sandstone trim.
(d)Roof framing.8 steel roof trusses, 2 x 10 purlins 2' on centre, with 1 1/4 matched roofing. Flat portion, 2 x 10 joists. (Hopper roof construction.)
(e)Roof covering (Type and date).Main hall roof covered in #26 guage galvanized iron on wood, roll rib joints, The flat roof is tar and gravel.
(f)Floor, main hall.Red birch, dub floor is dressed lumber layed on 2" x 4" timber bedded in concrete.
(g)Other floors.Maple, layed on 2 x 12 joists with deafening between all floors.
(h)Partitions.Basement partitions brick. Main hall brick, all other partitions are tile and plaster.
(i)Balconies.Balcony runs entire length of main hall, is 8' wide.
5.Miniature rifle range—Description.In basement, 23 yds by 4 ys.
6.Bowling alleys, badminton courts, indoor baseball or other facilities for games. 
7.Heating system— 
(a)General Description. 
(b)Make and size heating apprs.Hot water boilers of about 4500 ft. of direct radiation, plus 4 stoves to heat Drill Hall. One Gurney Oxford #6 1/2 B boiler, 1 Royal Imperial #25 Boiler, 4 McClary #230 stoves.
(c)Fuel per annum.80 tons coal.
(d)Engineer and fireman specially employed.No.
8.Lighting system—General description.Modern electric lighting system throughout building.
9.Fire protection. Show position of standpipes in building, on site or on street plan.One stand pipe centre West Wall Drill Hall.
10.Caretakers— 
(a)Military or Civilian.One military plus on civilian.
(b)Quartered in Armoury.Yes (Military)
(c)Does he tend heating apprs.Yes.
11.Units in occupation.2nd Kent Regiment (M.G.)
12.General condition (Adequate space or not).Adequate.
Clothing, Equipment, fixtures (adequate or not). 
13.Any special remarks not included above. 
14.Site— 
(a)Ownership.Department of National Defence
(b)How acquired, date, cost and present value.Taken over from Imperial authorities in 1854. Present value $22,000.
(c)Who holds deed.District Enginering Officer, M.D. No. 1, London, Ontario
(d)Size and area.11.5 acres.
(e)Name of street and number of lot.Stanley, William and Colbourne Streets.
(f)Fences, walks, and roadways on site.No public roadways, 2 gravel foor paths. No fences.
(g)Surface—whether grass and whether kept in condition, and by whom.Grass. Looked after by City of Chatham.
(h)Is any part of site used for other than military purpose. Give details.Used by the City of Chatham for Playgrounds and park (term of 99 years).
(i)Are there any other structures on site. If so give details.Boy Scout hut; comfort station (built by Chatham); Bowling green and roller shed.
(j)State nature of surface of roads, also sidewalks on adjoining street.Paved and gravel.
(k)Any remarks on site not included above. 
15.Remarks. 

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Saturday, 12 July 2014
Army Form W3431 - Message Pad
Topic: Militaria

Army Form W3431 – Message Pad

In order to save time and promote simple clear messaging in action, even by the First World War the use of simple proforma messages were in vogue. This army Message Pad allows a Platoon or Company Commander to despatch, quickly and easily, a situation report on his location, contacts with friendly and enemy forces, actions of the enemy affecting his operations, urgent resupply or reinforcement requirements, and his current strength.

Simplicity in staff work is essential for clear messaging, no spin required.

elipsis graphic

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Friday, 11 July 2014
The Roots of Soldiering
Topic: Discipline

The Roots of Soldiering

"Drill and Discipline," by Major-General J.H. Beith, C.B.E., M.C., Journal of the Royal United Services Institution, Vol. LXXXIV, February to November, 1939

Major General John Hay Beith, CBE (17 Apr 1876 – 22 Sep 1952)

Major General John Hay Beith, CBE
(17 Apr 1876 – 22 Sep 1952)

On the outbreak of war in 1914 Beith joined the army as a second lieutenant in the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. In 1916 Beith was awarded the Military Cross for his conduct in the Battle of Loos. In 1939, Beith was given the honorary rank of major-general.

…the roots of soldiering, which are these:—

(a)     The soldier's pride in his own personal smartness and efficiency, and in the unit to which he belongs. Many a time in the history of our Army pride of Regiment alone has steadied men in a tight corner.

(b)     Instinctive ability both to obey and to command. The soldier is always doing one or other of these, and intensive drill is the best method of accustoming a commander to impress his will upon those under him, and them to obey instinctively and smartly.

(c)     Adaptability. A soldier must instantly be ready to take orders from his commander of the moment, however frequently the hazards of battle may transfer that command; and be equally ready to take command himself should occasion arise.

(d)     The sense of Order and Discipline. This enables troops to be assembled and manoeuvred rapidly and without confusion at moments of emergency.

(e)     Resiliency, or quick power of recovery, which restores the morale of disorganised troops in the shortest possible time.

(i)     Physical and mental endurance, which enable a soldier, however desperate the situation, or however exhausted he may be, to carryon far beyond the limits of his normal strength and courage.

Such are the qualities of the true soldier; and experience has proved that they are best and most lastingly ingrained by simple routine exercises in the elements of soldiering, continually and patiently repeated. So trained, a soldier will be able, whatever the danger and distractions about him, to concentrate steadily on his duty, whether it is to lead, or follow, or act upon his own initiative. Then it is that he will appreciate the value of his early and, at times, perhaps ruthless training, for it will have made him a keen, flexible and fully tempered instrument.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Thursday, 10 July 2014
Canadian Air Command 1975
Topic: RCAF

Canadian Air Command 1975

The Defence of Canada, Colonel Norman L. Dodd, The Army Quarterly and Defence Journal, Vol. 108, No. 1, January 1978

The Canadian Air Command was formed in 1975, it is responsible for the provision of operationally-ready regular and reserve air forces to meet Canada's national, continental and international commitments. It has also become the focal point of tradition and personal expertise for the airmen of the Canadian Forces in the same way as sailors and soldiers relate to the Maritime and Mobile Commands. The Air HQ is at Winnipeg and the Commander is also responsible for the Prairie Region. The total strength is about 22,700 regulars, 750 reservists and 8,600 civilians, they are deployed in five Groups. These are the Maritime Air Group, the 10 Tactical Air Group, the Air Transport Group, the Air Defence Group and the Air Reserve Group.

The Maritime Air Group squadrons are under the operational command of the Maritime Commander flying the patrol aircraft and the, Sea King helicopters for the naval forces. The 10 Tactical Group supports Mobile Command and has two fighter squadrons of CF-5 aircraft though some of the 24 aircraft are in care and maintenance, there are also a variety of helicopters in this group. The Air Transport Group operates ATG Boeing 707s and C-130 transport aircraft providing strategic and tactical mobility for Mobile Command and supporting the various UN Peacekeeping Forces. Air Reserve Group comprises four Reserve Wings flying Otters, Dakotas and Twin Otters, some Air Reserve personnel help to man Tracker aircraft of 420. Squadron based at Shearwater.

The Air Defence Group …, is responsible for maintaining the sovereignty of Canada's Air space. … Aircraft include three all-weather fighter squadrons equipped with CF-101 Voodoos, a Voodoo training squadron and an electronic warfare squadron with CF-100 and T-33 aircraft…

After a long delay the Government has at last realized that if the Canadian air forces are to remain in the "first league" some new fighter aircraft must soon be purchased. The Cabinet has therefore authorized the Department of National Defence to obtain from manufacturers proposals for a total of between 130 and 150 new high performance multi-purpose fighters. They are to replace the CF-104s and CF-101 aircraft, the CF-5s would then be converted to advanced trainers for use in the 1980s. The six possible candidates are the Grumman F-14, the McDonnell-Douglas F-15i, the General Dynamics F-16, the McDonnell-Douglas/Northrop F-18, the Panavia Tornado and the Dassault-Breguet F1 E.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Wednesday, 9 July 2014
Sick Parade
Topic: Humour

SICK PARADE

Canada in Warpaint, Capt. Ralph W. Bell, 1917

"The Company," read the orderly Sergeant, "will parade at 8.45 A.M., and go for a route march. Dress: Light marching order."

A groan went up from the dark shadows of the dimly-lighted barn, which died down gradually on the order to "cut it out." "Sick parade at 7.30 A.M. at the M.O.'s billet Meninlee-Chotaw," announced the O.S. sombrely. "Any of you men who wanter go sick give in your names to Corporal Jones right now."

Yells of "Right here, Corporal," "I can't move a limb, Corporal," and other statements of a like nature, announced the fact that there were quite a number of gentlemen whose pronounced view it was that they could not do an eight-mile route march the next day. Corporal Jones emerged, perspiring, after half an hour's gallant struggle. Being very conscientious he took full particulars, according to Hoyle: name, number, rank, initials, age, religion, and nature of disease. The last he invariably asked for by means of the code phrase, "wossermarrerwiyou?"'

Having refused to admit at least half a dozen well-known scrimshankers to the roll of sick, lame, and lazy, he finished up with Private Goodman, who declared himself suffering from " rheumatics hall over. Me legs is somethin' tur'ble bad."

There were thirteen names on the report.

Meninle-Chateau being a good three kilometres distant, the sick fell in at 6.30 A.M. the next day. The grey dawn was breaking in the East, and a drizzling rain made the village street even more miserable-looking than it was at all times. As OD all sick parades, all the members thereof endeavoured to look their very worst, and succeeded admirably for the most part. They were unshaven, improperly dressed, according to military standards, and they shuffled around like a bunch of old women trying to catch a bus. Corporal Jones was in a very bad temper, and he told them many things, the least of which would have made a civilian's hair turn grey. But, being "sick," the men merely listened to him with a somewhat apathetic interest.

They moved off in file, a sorry-looking bunch of soldiers. Each man chose his own gait, which no injunctions to get in step could affect, and a German under-officer looking them over would have reported to his superiors that the morale of the British troops was hopeless.

At 7.25 A.M. this unseemly procession arrived in Menin-le-Chateau. In the far distance Corporal Jones espied the Regimental Sergeant-Major. The latter was a man whom every private considered an incarnation of the devil! The junior N.C.O.'s feared him, and the Platoon Sergeants had a respect for him founded on bitter experience in the past, when he had found them wanting. In other words he was a cracking good Sergeant-Major of the old-fashioned type. He was privately referred to as Rattle-Snake Pete, a tribute not only to his disciplinary measures, but also to his heavy, fierce black moustachios, and a lean, eagle-like face in which was set a pair of fierce, penetrating black eyes.

"If," said Corporal Jones loudly, "you all wants to be up for Office you'll walk. Otherways you'll march! There's the Sergeant-Major!"

The sick parade pulled itself together with a click. Collars and the odd button were furtively looked over and done up, caps pulled straight, and no sound broke the silence save a smart unison of " left-right-left " along the muddy road. The R.S.M. looked them over with a gleam in his eye as they passed, and glanced at his watch.

"'Alf a minute late, Co'poral Jones," he shouted. "Break into double time. Double … march! "The sick parade trotted away steadily–until they got round a bend in the road. "Sick!!!" murmured the R.S.M.

"My H'EYE!"

A little way further on the parade joined a group composed of the sick of other battalion units, some fifty in all. Corporal Jones handed his sick report to the stretcher-bearer Sergeant, and was told he would have to wait until the last.

In half an hour's time the first name of the men in his party was called–Lance-Corporal MacMannish.

"What's wrong?" asked the doctor briskly.

"'A have got a pain in here, sirr," said MacMannish, "an' it's sair, sorr," pointing to the centre of his upper anatomy.

"Show me your tongue? H'm. Eating too much! Colic. Two number nine's. Light duty."

Lance-Corporal MacMannish about-turned with a smile of ecstatic joy and departed, having duly swallowed the pills.

" What did ye get, Jock?"

"Och! Light duty," said the hero with the air of a wronged man justified," but you'll be no gettin' such a thing, Bowering!"

"And why not?" demanded the latter scowling. However, his name being then called put an end to the discussion.

"I have pains in me head and back, sir," explained Mr. Bowering, "and no sleep for two nights." The doctor looked him over with a critical, expert eye.

"Give him a number nine. Medicine and duty. Don't drink so much, Bowering! That's enough. Clear out!"

"He's no doctor," declared the victim when he reached the street. "Huh! wouldn't trust a cat with 'im!"

The next man got no duty, and this had such an effect on him that he almost forgot he was a sick man, and walloped a pal playfully in the ribs on the doorstep, which nearly led to trouble.

Of the remaining ten, all save one were awarded medicine and duty, but they took so long to tell the story of their symptoms, and managed to develop such good possible cases, that it was 8.45 before the parade fell in again to march back to billets, a fact which they all thoroughly appreciated!

Wonderful the swinging step with which they set forth, Corporal Jones at the head, Lance-Corporal MacMannish, quietly triumphant, bringing up the rear. They passed the Colonel in the village, and he stopped Corporal Jones to inquire what they were.

"Your men are marching very well, Corporal. 'A' Company? Ah, yes. Fatigue party, hey?"

"No-sir, sick-parade-sir!"

"Sick Parade! God bless my soul! Sick! How many men were given medicine and duty?

"Nine, sir."

"Nine, out of thirteen… 'A' Company is on a route march this morning, is it not?"

"Yessir."

"My compliments to Major Bland, Corporal, and I would like him to parade these nine men in heavy marching order and send them on a nine-mile route-march, under an officer."

"Very good, sir!"

Next day there were no representatives of "A" Coy. on sick parade!

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Tuesday, 8 July 2014
Duties of Officers in Action
Topic: Officers

Infantryman, Canadian Volunteer Militia, 1863-1870

This volunteer wears the full dress uniform authorized for the Canadian Volunteer Militia in 1863. Few units would have worn the shako shown in this image, substituting the inexpensive (and far more comfortable) forage cap. The style is generally similar to that worn by British regular infantry, with the white-metal buttons and badges commonly used by militia units within the British empire. Reconstruction by Ron Volstad. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Source page.

Canadian Military History Gateway

Duties of Officers in Action

Regulations and Orders for the Active Militia, The Schools of Military Instruction, and the Reserve Militia (in the cases therein mentioned) of the Dominion of Canada; 4th March 1870

367.     When in action, almost everything depends on the example shewn to the men by their Officers, the latter should bear this constantly in mind and endeavour to exhibit the greatest cheerfulness, courage and determination, under all circumstances; in battle, neither the hop of reward nor the fear of punishment has so much effect as the power of example; the leader who cries forward may see his men fly disgracefully, but he who, sword in hand, rushes on the enemy will generally be followed.

368.     When a battalion is fighting in line in close order, it is the duty of the Officers and N. C. Officers in the Supernumerary Rank, to prevent any break occurring in the rear rank, and they are not to allow any man to leave the ranks without orders under any pretense whatever.

369.     Officers must aid in controlling and directing the fire of the men, in checking any waste or unnecessary expenditure of ammunition, and in distributing fresh supplies of the same. No one fighting in the ranks should be permitted to fall out to assist the wounded, but men should be specially appointed to this duty. If in a serious engagement this cannot be observed, the wounded must remain where they lie until the conclusion of the action.

370.     When a Battalion is fighting in extended order, the Officers must be on alert to pass the word of command along the line, as the use of the bugles on such occasions is objectionable.

371.     When a Battalion or Corps has become broken or disordered, the consequence either of a successful advance or sudden reverse, it is the duty of Officers to exert themselves to the utmost to rally and reform the men as rapidly as possible, and when directed, to lead them on again to the attack.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Sunday, 22 June 2014 12:57 PM EDT
Monday, 7 July 2014
Canada's Defence Needs
Topic: Cold War


The Heller Antitank Missile, the AVRO Arrow fighter, The Bra d'Or hydrofoil and the Bobcat armoured personnal carrier: all Canadian miltary programs that were cancelled.

Canada's Defence Needs

"All that this Dominion, therefore, needs is the minimum force and equipment required for essential training and for participation in the international police force yet to be organized to sustain world peace. Size, after all, in modern armies is less important than it ever was."

The Evening Citizen (editorial); 1 March 1946

Because Canada's permanent peacetime defence forces are modest in size, the criticism is heard that they are inadequate for a country that aspires to be a leader among the smaller nations. The criticism fails to take into account of the revolution which new weapons invented during the late war has effected in strategy and tactics as well as in industrial potential.

The Canadian army, as has been officially announced, is to consist of 25,000 permanent force and 180,000 reserve—partly trained reinforcements. The navy is to have a permanent force of 10,000 officers and men with 18,000 reserve and sixteen ships, including two light aircraft-carriers. The air force will be composed of approximately 20,500 men, active and auxiliary, with 10,000 reserve.

Admittedly, this is a small force. But the issue is not its size but its adequacy to present defence needs and to Canada's obligations under the United Nations charter.

Despite upheavals and violence in so many regions of the globe today, there is no threat of a major war in either hemisphere. The twin menaces of Germany and Japan have vanished and cannot reappear for another thirty or forty years in any circumstances. Russia, as Stalin has just emphasized, wants a long period of peace.

All that this Dominion, therefore, needs is the minimum force and equipment required for essential training and for participation in the international police force yet to be organized to sustain world peace. Size, after all, in modern armies is less important than it ever was. With only the one hundred thousand men permitted by the Versailles treaty, Hitler and the Nazi war-makers were able to discretely build up the mightiest army in the world. With only a few hundred fighter-pilots, the Royal Air Force was able to win the Battle of Britain against four times its numbers and so change the course of history.

It is not the size but highly developed technical skill and scientifically-designed equipment and armaments that will win future wars if the nations are insane enough to undertake them. In this age of mechanism, victory is likely to rest not with the big battalions but with the most powerful machines and the most deadly arms and those best trained to use them.

Consequently, rather than concentrating on numerically large defence forces, this Dominion ought to concentrate on research into modern weapons, how best to develop them and how best to counter them; on the scientific study of warfare as invention has changed it; and on the production of a small elite force of fighting specialists who keep the closest liaison with all parallel developments in Great Britain and the United States.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Saturday, 14 June 2014 8:54 PM EDT
Sunday, 6 July 2014
War Inventions, Discoveries, Science
Topic: CEF

War Inventions, Discoveries, Science

The Canadian Annual Review War Series; 1918, by J. Castell Hopkins, F.S.S., F.R.G.S., published 1919 (pp. 71-74)

An important phase of the [First World] War which developed along opposing lines was that of discoveries in science and medicine and surgery, inventions in killing and curing, in transportation and industry. Aviation, from a painful effort by isolated enthusiasts, became one of the wonders of the War and one of its most effective instruments; Submarines from a Jules Verne atmosphere of utter improbability assumed a status which imperilled the commerce, shipping and transportation of the world; motor-cycles, motor-lorries, automobiles, electric trucks, many and varied forms of electric transport assumed a place of fundamental importance in the carriage of millions of men and hundreds of millions of tons of supplies, of artillery, of ammunition, &c. in motor-cycles alone the Germans used about 18,000 at the first Battle of the Marne, the British had 40,000 in the spring of 1915 and the French 11,000 while the total in use by all the belligerants during the War ran up to one million in number. Huge Tanks, super-tanks and little whippets, revolutionized the practices of war over difficult country and largely contributed to solve the trench problem which for two years had held up armies of millions and caused many sanguinary conflicts. To British ingenuity and initiative was due this discovery as were the chief Aeroplane war-improvements of the period. To Italy and the genius of Marconi were due the discovery and, first uses of Wireless Telegraphy; to War requirements were due the tremendous adaptations of this discovery between ships, and under water, in aeroplanes and moving trains, between countries and Continents.

When the War commenced Germany was popularly supposed to lead the world in scientific implements of warfare; as a matter of fact she lead chiefly in preparedness and quantity. As the struggle developed initiative passed to the British Allies whose aeroplanes knocked out the Zeppelins just as the British tank was perfected in face of German ridicule and the Machine gun, originally invented by a Frenchman, was perfected in the British Maxim. The British made the first big bombing war-plane—the Handley Page—and the German Gotha was only an inferior copy; the Stokes trench-mortar revolutionized for British armies the use of this otherwise ancient weapon. Poison gas was one of the German inventions, or adaptations of ancient barbaric warfare, with ; which they hoped to win and perhaps might have done so by its earlier use yet in 1918 they were denouncing the cruelty of Allied application of an improved and more powerful gas and declaring it contrary to Hague declarations! So effective had it become in their enemy's hands that Canadians on the Lens' front in one night alone, and in the greatest of the War's gas effects, projected 80 tons of liquid gas against the German lines. Meantime the horrible "mustard" gas had been invented by the Germans and at the close of the War the Americans had vast quantities of a new gas ready for use.

In Naval types and designs the British were dominant—even the Submarine in its discovery being a mixture of American and British inventiveness. There was the Super-dreadnaught with its biggest of all guns and its vast machinery oil-fired and turbine driven, there were the fastest of light cruisers, the Super-destroyer, the Coastal motor-boat. The invention of the Turbine was claimed by Americans as well as British; the first turbine ship was the Turbinia, a British Naval craft. The torpedo originally was a British invention as was the system of combined gun-fire on a battle-ship; the depth charge or water-bomb which did so much to arrest Submarine supremacy, also, was of British origin. Other inventions, mostly British in invention or application, were the listening or sound device by which Submarines could be heard and exactly located under water at a considerable distance—a sort of water Wireless which, also, promised to be most useful in days of peace and the marine under-water telephone or picking up of the human voice from one Submarine to another. The manufacture or preliminary use of concrete ships became a fact in Canada, and elsewhere, and might in time have proved another fatal obstacle to the submarine. Aero-photography was developed from aeroplanes to a high degree of scientific and war effectiveness. The utilization of rubbish, of war debris, of torn and smashed weapons, shells, fragments of castaway food, or garments, or utensils, was brought to a point of wonderful effectiveness. The dust-tin or garbage-can was mobilized throughout England and France, fertilizers were extracted from refuse, shipping was salvaged to a quite remarkable extent, bones were turned into glue or phosphates, or glycerine. Germany in these latter points had acknowledged eminence; isolation, necessity, scientific precision of knowledge, and application along certain lines, wrought wonders in the form of substitutes.

Surgical and medical developments were one of the miracles of War. That, with the single exception of the Influenza epidemic near its close, 50,000,000 men could grapple over a term of years in deadly conflict, amid the devastation of whole countries and nations, without any general spread of contagious diseases, or epidemics of deadly and world-wide nature, was due to expert sanitation and surgery. There were, of course, local exceptions such as the Typhus which ravaged Serbia early in the War and at times attacked the Austrian and German armies; but, as a whole, these conditions were not of the nature so greatly feared in preceding wars. The use of anti-typhoid and anti-tetanus sera to prevent infection was wide-spread and to these and other advanced application of bacteriology, with hygiene and sanitation, the British and French armies owed their wonderful health. So, with the large proportion of wounded men saved as to their lives, or made efficient again as fighting units or private citizens, the result was due (1) to the masterly control of wound infections and (2) to a surgery such as the world had never before known or believed to be possible. As to the former the Germans claimed that at least 60 per cent. of their wounded returned to the field; it was alleged by Allied medical men that of the wounded who survived 6 hours 90% recovered. Anaesthetics and antiseptics had much to do with this and Dr. Woods Hutchinson in his book, The Doctor in War, declared after a year at the Allied front that chlorin had saved more lives in wounds and in drinking water than it had killed in gas:

The armies in Flanders and Northern France last winter, out in open trenches in some of the vilest and 'sickliest' weather troops ever had to face, had less sickness and fewer deaths from pneumonia and all other diseases than they used to have in barracks in time of peace, and far less than the general civil population at home. Instead of five men dying of disease to every one in battle, in the British army on the Western front, only one life has been lost by disease to every ten in battle. In fact, disease as a factor in the Army death rate has been almost wiped out, completely so in the sense that the amount of sickness in the camp and the deaths from disease at the Front have been barely half what they were in barracks in times of peace.

As to Surgery the most marvellous things were done in saving life to the smashed and broken human frame or in replacing flesh and skin with imitations which seemed to take the place of the original. Let a quotation from Colonel Pierre Duval of the French Reserve Medical Corps, as expressed (Nov. 1, 1918) at Fort Oglethorpe, in the United States, indicate the surgical situation: "I have removed the human lung from the chest cavity with forceps, tied its bleeding blood vessels, cleansed its outer surface and while still holding it in my hands and manipulatingit as you would a handkerchief, I have run thin pieces of gauze up its tracts. Feeling my way carefully along its walls I have removed a bullet or shell fragment. Then, after suturing the aperture, I have placed the respiratory organ back into the cavity of the chest. In two-thirds of the cases upon which I have so operated the patient lived."

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Saturday, 5 July 2014
RCR Returm to Wolseley Barracks
Topic: The RCR

Royal Canadians Returned Today

Recalls Departure of Little Company in August, 1914
Fine Record in War
Reorganized Regiment Is Under Command of Lieut.-Col. Hill

The Free Press, London, Ontario; 7 December 1920

Shortly after 2 o'clock this afternoon the detachment of the Royal Canadian Regiment, which is to constitute the permanent force for Military District No. 1, in this city, was officially welcomed to the city by Mayor E.S. Little.

The R.C.R. left Toronto at 10 o'clock and detrained at the Quebec street station, where they received the official welcome of the city. The detachment numbers about 200 officers and men, and is under the command of Lieut.-Col. Hill.

Six years ago last August, "K" Company, of the Royal Canadian Regiment, then engaged in musketry training at the Cove ranges, entrained here for Halifax on mobilization orders, and the departure of the only permanent force unit in London district brought home to citizens here more vividly the meaning of Great Britain's declaration of war a few hours later. It was the first time Wolseley Barracks had been without an infantry detachment since the opening of the Royal Infantry School on March 31, 1888, with Lieut.-Col. (now Brig.-Gen.) Henry Smith as Commandant. From the outbreak of the war until after its close there were expeditionary force troops here in varying numbers, but the first permanent force unit to be stationed here since was the new P.P.C.L.I., now transferred.

Lt.-Col. C.H. Hill, D.S.O. (1919)

Lt.-Col. C.H. Hill, D.S.O., Commanding Officer (1919)

The return of the Royal Canadians brings headquarters and two double companies, or more than half the personnel of the regiment. The detachment which left London in 1914, under Capt. (now Lieut.-Col. C.H. Hill, was 40 strong. Lieut.-Col. Hill now commands the regiment.

The Royal Canadian Regiment was established on December 21, 1883. Service overseas was under C.E.F. terms of enlistment and the three-year term in the permanent force expired long before the war was over. But a regiment never dies, and there was still a framework with which to carry on when the R.C.R., C.E.F. was disbanded last fall. The Government then inaugurated a two-year term of enlistment and began recruiting for the three permanent infantry regiments, which replace the one existing before the war—the R.C.R.

The R.C.R. took part in the operations of 1885, went to South Africa in 1899, sent a disciplinary force to the Yukon in 1899, and added luster to Canada's fame in South Africa. Their deeds of valour in the late war were many, and their list of battle honours long.

In the Great War

On the outbreak of the European war the regiment was mobilized at Halifax and brought to war strength by a draft of 900 men at Camp Valcartier. The regiment was then, on September 9, sent to Bermuda to relieve the 2nd Battalion Lincolnshire Regiment, remained there until August of the following year, when relieved by the 38th Battalion, C.E.F. It then proceeded to France via England, where it was rearmed and re-equipped.

On November 1, 1915, the R.C.R. landed at Boulogne and moved up to the line, becoming Corps troops under Lieut.-Gen. Sir A.E.H. Alderson, K.C.B. It went into the trenches for the first time at Messines with the 1st Canadian Division.

At the beginning of 1916 it was one of the battalions comprising the 7th C.I.B., under Brig.-Gen. A.C. Macdonell, C.M.G., D.S.O., of the newly formed 3rd Canadian Division, under Major-General Mercer, C.B. The brigade consisted of the Royal Canadian Regiment, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, 42nd Battalion, Royal Highlanders of Canada, 49th Battalion, Edmonton Regiment.

The regiment's first general action was that of the German attack on June 2 and 5, on Sanctuary Wood and Hooge, in the salient.

Between June and August the regiment carried on trench raids. In September it moved south to the Somme, where they took part on September 15 in attacks on the enemy northeast of Courcelette. Again the following day, the 16th, two companies of the regiment, with the 42nd Battalion, R.H.C., attacked in broad daylight over ground heavily swept by machine gun and rifle fire, being practically wiped out when 500 yards from the enemy trench, where the whole battalion was reduced to less than 100 fighting men.

In November the R.C.R. moved to Neuville St. Vaast near Vimy Ridge, where nothing of much importance took place, as this was a very quiet sector, although some successful raids were carried out. On April 9 the regiment took part in the attack on Vimy Ridge on a three-company frontage with one company in support. This was one of the most perfectly planned and executed attacks, and every man knew what his job was, and for two months they had practiced over taps trenches. Although we suffered very heavy casualties, both in officers and in men, still very heavy casualties were inflicted upon the enemy and many prisoners taken.

Hill 70 and Lens

At the end of April, 1917, the regiment took part in Hill 70, suffering heavy casualties, and later moved south of Lens, opposite Memcourt. At the end of October it moved up north and took part in the attack on Passchendaele and later, on November 14, held the line here for three days until relieved by the Imperials. Christmas day was spent in Gouchey Valley with the Brigade in the line at Lierin, opposite Lens. In February, 1918, it moved to "Le Pendu" Camp, near Mont St. Eloy; moved in line opposite Avion and put in 56 days in the front and support lines. On May 1 they were relieved by Imperials and moved out to Bourecq, between Aire and Lillers. Here the division came under General Foch and was known as general reserve. At the end of June it moved into the line south of Arras, at Neuville Vitasse, and later to Amiens, where on August 8 it took part in the battle of Amiens, connecting up with the French army, who were also in this attack. Later on in August it moved again to Arras and on August 26 attacked Monchey-le-Preux, where they suffered very heavy casualties.

Lieut. Milton Fowler Gregg, V.C., M.C. Lieut. Milton Fowler Gregg, V.C., M.C.

Lieut. Milton Fowler Gregg, V.C., M.C.

Later in September the regiment took part in the battle of Cambrai, where it suffered very heavy casualties, losing 22 officers and very many men. Here the adjutant was killed and the commanding officer wounded. The latter was then Col. C.R.E. Willetts, D.S.O., who now commands the P.P.C.L.I.

At the end of October the R.C.R. took part in the action at Bois de Raimes, north of Valenciennes, and on November 10 followed up the enemy with the 42nd R.H.C. and were the first troops to capture and enter Mons.

Lt.-Col. C.R.E. Willets, D.S.O.

Lt.-Col. C.R.E. Willets, D.S.O. (1918)

The division did not go to Germany, but was kept in the vicinity of Mons and Brussels, where later in January, 1919, started to move back towards the base, then proceeded to Bramshott, England, and arrived home on March 8 in Halifax, where it was disbanded as a C.E.F. unit.

Numerous decorations were won, Lt. Milton Fowler Gregg winning the V.C. at Cambrai.

The regiment was commanded by Lieut.-Col. A.H. Macdonnell, C.M.S., D.S.O., on first going to France, and in April, 1916, Lieut.-Col. C.H. Hill, D.S.O., took over command and held it until June, 1918, when it was commanded by Lieut.-Col. C.R.E. Willetts, D.S.O., who held command until wounded at the battle of Cambrai. The command was then taken over by Lieut.-Col. George MacLeod, D.S.O., formerly 49th Battalion, who held the command until February, 1919, when the command was again taken over by Lieut.-Col. Hill, D.S.O., who brought the regiment back to Canada.

Researching The Royal Canadian Regiment in the First World War


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT

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