The Minute Book
Sunday, 24 September 2017

The Militia Camp; 24 Sept 1885
Topic: Canadian Militia

The Militia Camp; 24 Sept 1885

A Windy Night Under Canvas
The Review

The county inspector has had several of the keepers of canteens summoned for selling liquor without a license at the camp ground.

The London Advertiser, London, Ont., 24 September 1885

Tuesday night proved a stormy one in camp [on Carling's farm, present location of Wolseley Barracks, London, Ontario]. The cold wind whistled through the openings in the canvas tents, and the scant bedding proved but poor protection against it. The only way of warming themselves that proved effectual was to get up and execute a war dance round the tent, and this is neither pleasant nor practicable in a twelve foot space with ten men sleeping in it. During the early part of the evening the brigade headquarters went by the board, the wind having ripped the large marquee all up one side. The wreck was removed from the ground, and the headquarters moved to the Quartermaster's tent, where they are now to be found. The wind also damaged the marquee of the 25th Battalion, and played other pranks around the camp.

The Review

About 12,000 or 15,000 persons assembled at the camp grounds yesterday to witness the review. Every train that came in during the morning brought hundreds of visitors, and Elgin, Perth, Oxford, Essex, Kent and Wellington were all fully represented. General Middleton rode on the parade grounds punctually on time and was accompanied by Lieut.-Col. Clarke, Lieut.-Col. Aylmer, Lieut.-Col. Peters, Lieut.-Col. Dawson; Major Miller and Capt. Wise, acting as aide de camps.

The first portion of the review consisted of a march past, which took place just at the foot of the hill. In this the cavalry came first, followed by the artillery, and next the infantry, with the Oxford Rifles first. The march past was done with precision, the men passing the saluting point as even as a a wall. The double past followed, which was equally well accomplished, and then came the sham battle. The troops were all drawn up on the eastern end of the ground, and the plan of battle was to dislodge an imaginary enemy at the western end. The action commenced by the cavalry scouts advancing to locate the enemy, and after uncovering them and exchanging a few shots they fell back and a battery of artillery were sent forward on the right. In the mean time a flank movement had been executed on the left with another battery of artillery, who gained the crest of the hill and their fire forced the enemy back, and enabled the battery of the left to again advance. After the artillery had done all it could toward dislodging the enemy, the 22nd Oxford Rifles were thrown forward in skirmishing order, and succeeded in driving the enemy still further back. Then the 28th and 30th, who had been held in reserve, came forward and completed the enemy's defeat. The 21st, 24th and 25th fired a few volleys after the flying foes, and the engagement was at an end. General Middleton afterwards proceeded to the brigade headquarters, where he gathered the staff officers around, and complimented them very highly upon the manner in which their various corps had acted. He expressed himself as greatly pleased with the whole of the afternoon's work.

Notes (selected from those published)

A well-known Colonel of one of the infantry regiments wandered into the wrong lines the other night. He was rather surprised when the sentry ran him in the guard room, but upon explanation a release followed.

The total strength of the brigade is now placed at 1,971 non-commissioned officers and men, 170 officers, including the brigade staff, and 252 horses. The brigade is only 39 men short of its full strength.

The county inspector has had several of the keepers of canteens summoned for selling liquor without a license at the camp ground.

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Tuesday, 11 July 2017

Canada’s Military Forces Dwindling (1922)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Canada’s Military Forces Dwindling (1922)

Reorganization Proceeds With Reduction of 450 Officers and Men

The Montreal Gazette, 11 July 1922

Ottawa, July 11.—A reorganization of the permanent force involving a reduction of 450 officers and men is now proceeding as a result of the action of Parliament at its last session in reducing the military estimates. The strength of the force was put at about 3,800 during the discussion of the militia estimates so that the reduction now underway would bring it down to approximately 3,350. This reorganization affects the permanent force throughout all the military districts and the figures given above include the reductions made in the Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery at Quebec and those made at Kingston, which have been reported from those points. As a result of economies of demobilization last year there was a saving available of some $200,000 towards the cut made in the estimates at the last session. This left a deficit of approximately $500,000 during the current year, which has had to be taken care of, and this it is expected to accomplish by the retirement of 450 officers and men. As is indicated by these figures it is calculated that on average, including both officers and men, each member of the permanent force costs the country about $1,200.

The Senior Subaltern

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Sunday, 25 June 2017

Militia Uniforms and Arms (1855)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Militia Uniforms and Arms (1855)

Militia General Orders, The Canada Gazette, 16th Auguist 1855

As uniformity in the Color of Clothing of the Volunteer Militia Force is a matter of considerable consequence in a Military point of view, His Excellency is pleased to direct that the Color of then Coats of the Cavalry Troops be Blue.

That for the Field Batteries and Foot Companies of Artillery be Blue.

That for the Rifle Companies be Green.

That the Coats be of the Tunic shape, such as is now prescribed for Her Majesty's Forces.

His Excellency is content to leave the choice of the Color of the facings, of the Trowsers, Head Dress, &c., to be decided by the several Companies in the manner most agreeable to themselves. Lace, if any be worn, shall be silver for all, except Artillery Companies, Field Batteries, and Rifles. The choice of the facings, Trowsers, Head Dress, Lace, &c., shall be reported, with Patterns as soon as made to the Adjutant General, and when approved by the Commander in Chief, must not be altered without due authority.

The provision of this General order shall not affect the uniform of any Company of Volunteer Militia already embodied and uniformed at their own expense, without a special order of the Commander in Chief to that effect.

Arms and Accoutrements for the Service of the Volunteer Force will be delivered to the Captains of the several Companies as soon as practicable; on the receipt of which the Captain will give an acknowledgement for the safe custody of the same, according to a Form which will be issued by the Adjutant General; and every Volunteer will sign a receipt for the safe custody of all Arms, Accoutrements or Ammunition which may be delivered into his charge, and which Receipt will be embodied in the Service Roll furnished by the Adjutant General to the Captain already alluded to.

Arrangements relative to the mode in which Blank and Ball Ammunition for practice will be issued, will be hereafter notified. 30 Rounds of Service Ball Ammunition, and a due proportion of Copper caps, will be delivered to every Volunteer in the Rifle Companies, to be reteined in charge of the men whenever it shall be so ordered; and for the safe custody of which they will then be held responsible.

The annual amount of Ammunition for practice and exercise for the several arms will be as follows, viz:—-

  • Six Pounder Field Batteries
    • 140 Rounds of Blank
    • 150 Rounds Ball Ammunition
  • Rifle Companies
    • 40 Rounds of Blank
    • 60 Rounds Ball Ammunition
  • Copper caps in proportion of 11 caps for every 10 Cartridges for exercise and practice, and 5 Copper caps for every 4 cartridges for service.

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Friday, 16 June 2017

The Militia Appropriation (1887)
Topic: Canadian Militia

The Militia Appropriation (1887)

Dominion Parliament

The St. Andrew’s Bay Pilot, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, 16 June 1887

The House went into Committee of Supply.

We should endeavor in every was possible to infuse a military spirit into the people.

On the item militia, $1,286,000.

Mr. Denison drew attention to several recommendations in the Major-General’s report with which he could not agree. The report recommended that all officers of permanent corps should be senior in rank to other militia officers. He objected strongly to the idea. It was a slavish following of the English system, while the condition of the two forces was entirely dissimilar. In England there were volunteers, the militia and the regular army. Here we had only the militia. In England it was not intended and for two or three hundred years the practice had not been followed, that militia or volunteers should be used in foreign service, although it was not the standing army that laid the foundation of England’s greatness in the battles of Cressy, Poictiers and Agincourt. Yet in all modern wars in which England was engaged the standing army alone was sent to do the fighting. In England, therefore, the officers of the permanent force had the benefit of experience, which was denied to the officers of the militia and volunteers, and that might justify the regulations there, but here it was entirely different. The moment there was any trouble here, calling for military aid, The Canadian militia turned out and served alongside of the permanent corps wherever they might be required. The militia officers of Canada made great sacrifices for the force. They spent their time and their means and did everything they could to further its interests. On the other hand the permanent officers had good pay and were well looked after, and there was no reason why they should have any preference. Again, the Major-General advocated the enlargement of the regular force and a corresponding decrease in the militia as a step necessary to maintain a proper system of defence. He (Mr. Denison) thought that exactly the opposite course should be pursued. The schools should be cut down to the smallest possible limit consistent with supplying the necessary instruction. Of what earthly use would be a standing army of one or two thousand men in the event of trouble with our neighbors to the south? Of no use at all. On the other hand, if we had a militia force of one hundred thousand men, it could, by increasing the service roll of every company from 42 to 125, be enlarged to three hundred thousand, a force which would be of great service to us in an emergency. In Europe the idea was to go in for armed nations, and in his judgement that was the proper course for us to follow. We should endeavor in every was possible to infuse a military spirit into the people. The military force should at once be increased to 50,000, and should be drilled for at least sixteen days in each year. The idea ought to be scouted of going backwards by reducing our strength. He did not think it was to the interests of a young country like Canada to have a large standing army. We could not afford to have any drones in the hive. But by a moderate amount of drilling we could have a large force which would be available and useful at short notice. It was understood at Confederation that one million dollars would be spent annually on the militia, and he did not think it was fair that when reductions anywhere were found necessary this appropriation should suffer. He hoped the Minister would not be guided by the report of the Major-General, and thet he would not permit injustice to be done to the Canadian militia by giving regular officers special rank over them.

Mr. O’Brien said he quite agreed with the last speaker in his criticism of the evident intention on the part of some in authority to place the permanent corps in a position different from that of the militia. He strongly objected to anything being done which would make the permanent force anything more than that which it was intended from the first to be, a school of instruction.

Sir Adolphe Caron said he agreed with Mr. Denison that a standing army would be altogether out of place in this country. The permanent corps was intended merely for instructional purposes, and its usefulness had been shown in the number of trained men who were turned out every year to render valuable services to the country. He did not place the same interpretation on the report of the Major-General as Mr. Denison had done. The General did not wish to replace our militia system by a permanent army, and he was sure that such views would not be entertained by Parliament.

The item passed.

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Thursday, 15 June 2017 11:54 PM EDT
Wednesday, 14 June 2017

Issue of Snider Enfield Rifles (1867)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Issue of Snider Enfield Rifles (1867)

Militia General Orders

Headquarters, Ottawa, 14th June, 1867

General Orders; Volunteer Militia
No. 1

1.     Arrangements have been made for the exchange of the Rifles now in possession of the Volunteers for Snider Enfield breech loading rifles.

2.     The exchange will be made with the least possible delay, and to effect which, depots of these rifles and ammunition for the same will be formed at Quebec, Montreal, Prescott, Kingston, Toronto and London, from whence District Staff Officers may draw to supply the Corps in their several Districts.

3.     Upon receipt of these Rifles by the several Corps, the Arms and Ammunition at present in their possession are to be returned as follows: The muzzle loading rifles and ammunition for same to the Provincial Storekeeper at Quebec, and the Peabody, Spencer, and Westley Richards breech loaders with ammunition for the same to the Provincial Storekeeper at the District Head Quarters of the several Distrists to which Corps in possession of the last names arms belong.

4.     The arms to be returned are to be forwarded to their respective destinations by the most direct public conveyance in the same boxes that contained the Snider Enfield breech loaders as received.

5.     The Commanding Officers of each Corps will be held responsible that the arms returned are clean, carefully packed and properly addressed to their several destinations.

6.     To prevent delay in returning into store the arms to be exchanged, Commanding Officers will see that all the Arms at present in possession of their Corps, are deposited in their several Armories, ready to be packed on receipt of the Snider Enfield.

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Friday, 9 June 2017

Order of Precedence; Canadian Militia (1910)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Order of Precedence; Canadian Militia (1910)

The King’s Regulations and Orders for the Canadian Militia, 1910

The following is the order of precedence in the Canadian Militia:—

Order.Regiment, unit, or corps.Order of precedence.
1The Gentlemen Cadets of the Royal Military College. 
2The Royal Canadian Horse Artillery. 
3The Royal Canadian Dragoons. 
4Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians). 
5The Governor-General's Body Guards. 
6Regiments and Squadrons of Cavalry and Mounted Rifles.As laid down in Militia List.
7Canadian Field Artillery.
8The Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery.
9Canadian Garrison Artillery.
10The Royal Canadian Engineers.
11Canadian Engineers.
12The Corps of Guides.
13The Royal Canadian Regiment.
14The Governor-General's Foot Guards.
15Regiments of Infantry and Rifles.
16Provisional regiments and independent companies of Infantry and Rifles.
17Signalling Corps.
18The Canadian Permanent Army Service Corps.
19The Canadian Army Service Corps.
20The Canadian Permanent Army Medical Corps.
21The Canadian Army Medical Corps.
22Canadian Ordnance Corps.
23Canadian Army Pay Corps.
24Other Departmental Corps.
25Corps of Military Staff Clerks.
26Cadet Corps.

Different units of the same arm take precedence in accordance with their numerical succession, except that a unit of the Permanent Force shall always take precedence of a unit of the same arm not forming a part of the Permanent Force.

On parade, other than ceremonial, and for the purpose of manoeuvre, units will be distributed and drawn up in the mode which the officer in command of such parade of manoeuvres may deem most convenient.

Gentlemen Cadets of the Royal Military College, when on parade with other troops, if mounted, take the right of all troops; if dismounted, the right of all dismounted troops.

Heavy batteries, when on parade with their guns, take the left of the field artillery.

In brigade, rifle regiments should be on a flank—usually the left—of the line of infantry.

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Thursday, 1 June 2017 10:59 PM EDT
Wednesday, 31 May 2017

No. 1. -- Review at Montreal (1878)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Militia General Orders

Headquarters, Ottawa, 31st May, 1878

General Orders (13.)

No. 1. – Review at Montreal

I take the earliest opportunity to express to the officers of the general and personal staff and to the regimental officers and men of the various Corps assembled at Montreal on the 24th May, my extreme approbation of their soldierlike appearance, their steadiness under arms and the discipline so manifest throughout. They did full credit to the loyal celebration of her majesty's birthday and the honor of being permitted to pass in review before the Representative of Our Most Gracious Sovereign the Queen.

The long line covering three-quarters of a mile was taken up by the corps with a precision that might do credit to regular troops.

The Royal salute was fired by the Artillery without a fault.

The feu de joie was admirably fired along the whole line, with one exception the result of insufficient practice.

The march past both in column and quarter column was remarkable for solidity and steadiness. Wach Battery, Corps and Battalion evinced the strongest effort to appear to the best advantage, in which they completely succeeded.

Some loss of distance between Brigades and battalions occurred in the march in column, but it was almost unavoidable owing to the broken nature of much of the ground and the dense mass of people by whom they were impeded.

The order of battle was taken up rapidly and accurately by both attacking and opposing forces, as had been previously directed.

In the various attacks in front and on both flanks, the troops told off for that service behaved with coolness most remarkable. Each attack was delivered at the proper time and in the method indicated, and for young troops who had but little practice in the new formation of attack, I am happt to state that their conduct quite surpassed my expectations.

The field batteries were posted by Lieut.-Col. Strange, Royal Artillery, at salient points to command the enemy's position and to concentrate their fire upon his men. One of these batteries, however, owing to a judicious movement of the enemy's guns became exposed to a destructive plunging fire from the heights.

In the dense and surging crowd of some 40,000 people who covered the field in every direction, it became very difficult for the brigades of infantry to observe the cohesion and unity of action that is necessary. So impervious was this assemblage that it was with difficulty some of the Rifle Regiments could be distinguished, therefore I am afraid disappointment may have been experienced by some of the corps not being engaged as actively as I had intended."

The promptness with which the Batteries and battalions ceased action and assembled in line of contiguous columns for the last general advance in review order, struck me with admiration. Old troops could hardly have reformed and marched into line from distant, diverging points with more rapidity, steadiness and precision.

The troops representing the enemy were disposed with judgment, taking advantage of the commanding ground on which they were posted. The guns were placed and admirably served by Capt Short, "B" Battery.

I had desired that when the enemy were resolutely pushed home in front and both flanks in the final attack, they should have accepted defeat from an overwhelming force and retired by the Mountain Road. This, however, in the heat of the moment was only partially carried out, and so as I had ordered the contending forces not to approach nearer than 100 yards, I was constrained to cease fire and to terminate the field day sooner than I intended.

As it was, I regret that some of the "Queen's own" and the Montreal Artillery became engaged too closely in an orchard, resulting in the only accident of the day, which is due to non observance of orders.

The Cavalry, I am sorry to say, could not be employed in the operations of the day, their services were so useful in keeping the crowd from about the flag staff and fore-ground that they could not be spared.

They were admirably turned out and equipped, and their fine horses attracted special remark.

The Cavalry, Field and Garrison Artillery, Engineers and Infantry of Montreal Brigade were in their usual soldierlike order.

The demi battery of guns and the foot detachment of "B" Battery, could not be surpassed, they presented a model of thorough training and discipline.

They, together with the 8th Rifle Battalion, landed that morning from Quebec, and this latter corps also paraded most creditably and looked extremely well.

The Ottawa Field Battery and the Governor General's Foot Guards also arrived during the course of the previous night. They came on the ground in admirable order and as well turned out as from comfortable quarters, though their journey by the North Shore Railway was one of great discomfort and bad accommodation for both men and horses.

The Queen's Own had perhaps more special difficulty to contend against than even other corps from a distance. They traveled from Toronto 333 miles, during the night, reached Montreal at 10 a.m. and were in line 430 strong, two miles from the station, at 11:30, looking smart, fresh, clean and soldierlike, not a belt or buckle deranged. I expressed my regret at having to assign the left of the line to this battalion owing to the unavoidable lateness of its

The Queen's Own travelled 700 miles, and took part in a long and fatiguing field day all within 44 hours.

This corps and the 8th afterwards formed the right attack. I should have gladly, had it been possible, given them a more conspicuous position, but they must be contented to know that the turning movement they performed would probably in an actual engagement have mainly decided the fate of the day.

I must express likewise the pleasure it gave the whole force to be associated with a contingent of American Militia from St. Albans. They marched into the general line carrying the Stars and Stripes aloft, looking the picture of soldiers with cross-belts similar to the British Infantry before the days of rifled weapons. We received them among us as brothers in arms and we offered them a cordial and a hospitable welcome.

On the whole it is my pleasing duty to offer my hearty congratulations to the force employed on this occasion which I have every reason to hope will be useful to them as encouraging to the Militia of the Dominion in general, and that it will be long remembered as an interesting and instructive event.

I cannot conclude more appropriately than by repeating the emphatic words of the Governor General in His Excellency's speech at the Brigade dinner the same evening.

"The spectacle, however, I have witnessed this morning, the scene which now meets my view, more than repay me for my previous deprivations and disappointments. Anything more admirably arranged, more gratifying to the pride of Canadians, to all friends of Canada, than the performance this morning, cannot well be conceived. From first to last everything has passed off to my entire satisfaction, and I now beg to tender my best thanks, and to render this acknowledgement not only on my own behalf, but on behalf of my fellow spectators and of the country at large, to the Lieut.-General who planned, to the Militia authorities who have organized, and to the officers and men who at great personal inconvenience have executed and carried out the triumphant celebration with which we have this morning saluted the Birthday of our Most Gracious Sovereign."

ED. Selby Smyth,

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Sunday, 28 May 2017

Conduct and Character of Soldiers of Permanent Force (1910)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Regarding Conduct and Character of Soldiers of Permanent Force (1910)

The King’s Regulations and Orders for the Canadian Militia, 1910

The main object of giving a soldier a certificate of character is to assist him in obtaining employment in civil life, and the certificate should be so worded that employers of labour can readily estimate the true worth of the man.

332.     The guiding principle in examining a soldier's conduct sheets with a view to assessing his character, is to differentiate between a man's character as a soldier and his character as a man.

The main object of giving a soldier a certificate of character is to assist him in obtaining employment in civil life, and the certificate should be so worded that employers of labour can readily estimate the true worth of the man. In addition to recording his character, the certificate should contain any information which would show what qualification a man possesses as regards civilian employment, e.g., "thoroughly sober and reliable"; "accustomed to the care of horses and a good groom"; "a good clerk, painstaking and industrious"; also, if desired by the soldier, "wife (washerwoman, needlewoman, &c.)," or any other special qualifications which a woman may possess.

333.     The success of arrangements for providing civil employment for a discharged soldier must, in a great measure, depend upon the manner in which the character of a man is estimated. If men recommended as of "good" character are found to be untrustworthy or unsteady, the confidence of employers of labour will not be gained. On the other hand, if, on account of comparatively trifling irregularities of a purely military nature, a man is refused a good character, his subsequent career in civil life may be injuriously affected. The responsibility, therefore, of a C.O. in this respect is very great, and his special attention is directed to the subject.

334.     To ensure uniformity in estimating and recording a man's character while serving, or on discharge, the following terms will be strictly adhered to:—

(i.)     Exemplary.
(ii.)     Very good.
(iii.)     Good.
(iv.)     Fair.
(v.)     Indifferent.
(vi.)     Bad.
(vii.)     Very bad.

335.     In estimating the character of a soldier, a C.O. will take into consideration any entries in a man's medical history sheet for admission into hospital on account of alcoholism. In cases where the character recorded is "indifferent," "bad," or "very bad," the reason for recording which a character will be briefly stated in the "Proceedings on Discharge," the man's conduct as a soldier being separated as much as possible from his character as a man, for example— (i) "conduct indifferent, has been guilty of frequent acts of absence, but is smart, willing and hardworking;" (ii) "conduct indifferent, has been addicted to drink, but is a smart soldier and respectful to his officers," (iii) "conduct bad, has been guilty of desertion, but has proved a gallant soldier in the field." In cases where the character is recorded as fair, or upwards, the C.O. will supplement it (when in the soldier's interest) by the words:—

(a)     No offence in whole service of ____ years; or
(b)     No offence during the lat _____ years and (where applicable);

No instance of drunkenness in whole service of _____ years.

Any such particulars that can be truthfully recorded in favour of the soldier should also be inserted in his certificate of character, but the reason for assessing the character as indifferent, bad, &c., is not to be inserted in the certificate.

336.     An "exemplary" character is the highest that can be given to any soldier, and is to be given only to a man whose period of service has enable his conduct to be thoroughly tested. It is to be reserved, therefore, for a man who has served for at least six years, who has not incurred more than the following number of entries in the regimental conduct sheet, and has been clear of an entry in the regimental conduct sheets for the periods stated in the subjoined table:—

Length of Service—No. of entries allowed in.Years clear of entry in.
 Regimental Conduct Sheet.
6 and under 9 years.25
9 and under 12 years.46
12 and under 15 years.57
15 and under 18 years.68
18 and upwards.79

The C.O. is the sole judge of whether an "exemplary" character should be granted. Though the soldiers fulfills the above conditions, the grant of an "exemplary" character is discretionary and not obligatory.

337.     In cases where a more favourable character than "fair" cannot be given to an N.C.O., the reasons will be briefly recorded in the proceedings on discharge, but not in the parchment certificate of discharge.

338.     A bad character is not to be given to a N.C.O.

339.     When a recruit is discharged before he has completed one month's service, and receives a good character, the words "during his _____ days' service" should be added after the word "good" in the proceedings on discharge and in the parchment certificate of discharge.

340.     A duplicate or copy of the discharge, or extract from official records, will not be issued to a discharged soldier. A certified copy of the record of a man's service will be supplied to the officer charged with his payment, if asked for.

The Senior Subaltern

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Thursday, 25 May 2017

Feu de Joie—1857
Topic: Canadian Militia

Feu de Joie—1857

Adjutant General's Office Toronto, 5th May, 1857

Militia General Order

The several Corps of the Active Militia Force of the Province will fire a feu de joie on Monday, the 25th instant, in honor of Her Majesty's Birth-day, in the manner laid down in page 58 of the Instructions for Drill of the Volunteer Militia, compiled by the Adjutant general as regards the Infantry.

At stations where either Field Batteries of Foot Companies of Artillery are organized, in addition to Cavalry and Infantry, the mode to be adopted will be as follows, viz.:

Each of the three rounds of blank ammunition to be fired by the Infantry, will be preceded by seven rounds from the Artillery, the Artillery thus firing in all twenty-one rounds and the Infantry three rounds of blank cartridge. Officers Commanding will cause the feu de joie to be fired either at 12 o'clock or at 1 o'clock as may be most convenient to the men.

When the time arrives for giving three cheers, the Officer Commanding will direct the men to take off their shakos or forage caps, as the case may be, and taking the cue from the Officer Commanding, give three cheers for her majesty the Queen.

By command of His Excellency the Governor General and Commander in Chief

de Rottenburg, Colonel
Adjt. General, Militia

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Wednesday, 24 May 2017

Roll Call, Coal Fatigues, et al. (1902)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Roll Call, Coal Fatigues, et al. (1902)

General Orders, 1902; Canada Gazette, volume 36, number 17, 25 October 1902

Subject to the requirements of training, which must be paramount, the soldier's time will be so apportioned that he has at his disposal on each day a certain definite period of leisure.

G.O. 103—Imperial Army Orders

The following extracts from Imperial Army Orders of 1st September, 1902, are published for the information and guidance of the Militia:—

Duties and Administration.— All roll calls will be discontinued, except those held—

(a)     At reveille,

(b)     For recruits, boys, defaulters, and for such other individual soldiers, and on such occasions as may be ordered by officers commanding stations and units.

2.     Soldiers will be warned for all duties, &c., by means of daily orders posted in a suitable place in each squadron, battery, or company's quarters. The soldier will himself be held personally responsible that he makes himself acquainted with all orders.

3.     Soldiers are permitted to smoke when walking in the streets, except when employed on any duty.

4.     Coal fatigues will be performed by defaulters. If none are available, the fatigues will be performed as follows:—

(a)     For non-regimental quarters, offices, schools, gymnasia, and other similar establishments and buildings—by the soldiers and civilian subordinates employed at such quarters, etc., or by arrangement with the contractor, provided no extra public expense is incurred thereby.

(b)     For officers' mess and quarters, and sergeants' mess—by servants or waiters.

(c)     For regimental institutes and offices—by men employed thereat.

(d)     For married quarters and barrack room—by the occupants of the quarters or room.

Light carts or trucks should be utilized wherever available.

5.     Kit inspection for trained men and recruits will be held only at such times as officers commanding corps, squadrons, etc., may consider necessary.

6.     The visiting or inspection of barracks, stables, &c., will not, except in cases of necessity, be performed on Sunday. The holding of parades will, as far as possible, be avoided on Sundays.

7.     A system of police will, wherever possible, replace garrison and regimental guards, which will only be mounted in special cases to be decided by the officer commanding the station of camp.

8.     No soldier will be employed in any capacity whatever in canteens of institutes conducted on the tenant system, except for disciplinary purposes.

9.     Subject to the requirements of training, which must be paramount, the soldier's time will be so apportioned that he has at his disposal on each day a certain definite period of leisure. This period will not be broken into for fatigue and working parties, except in circumstances of exceptional urgency.

The necessary amendments will be made to the King's Regulations. (Army Order No. 211 of 1902).

The Senior Subaltern

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Saturday, 20 May 2017

Changes Leading to Existing Militia System (1908)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Changes Leading to Existing Militia System (1908)

The Old Militia Law of Canada, The New Militia Laws of Australia and New Zealand, and Lord Kitcheners Report; Extracts from a Paper by Lieut. -Col. Wm. Hamilton Merritt, R.O.. President Canadian Military Institute. (Read before the Canadian Military Institute at Toronto, Monday Events in evening, 21st Nov., 1910.)

…respect for superiors had almost vanished, when men would give such answers to their names as "Sitting on the fence," or "Chewing a quid of tobacco!"

The weakness of the old Militia System was in its rendering. In some Provinces the militia-man eventually was only taught to bear arms in one muster day a year, and there was no other training even in the matter of rifle-shooting. In other Provinces, such as Nova Scotia, a better state of things prevailed, but the general weak rendering of an otherwise perfect and necessary system for Canada caused efforts to be made to create an active militia which should have more training. This appears to have been the object of the partial change effected by the Act of 1846, and of the epoch-making Act of 1855. The Act of 1846 was the thin edge of the wedge. Its most noticeable features are the introduction of the classification of the old "universal service" militia and the authorization of "volunteer" companies. While the universal annual enrollment was retained, the men of 40 and over were formed into a second class, which was to be drawn upon only in war- time. The first class were to be drawn upon for a military force raised for "active" service, not more than 30,000 strong, the "period of service" to be two years. Only one day's training was still the extent of the service required. The Act of 1855 brought about a departure from the old "Patriotic Service" form of military organization in Canada, and contemplated the raising of some 5,000 men to form "corps d'elite" among the militia and the retention of the old "universal service." Two "divisions" of militia were now recognized, the "sedentary" and the "active" or "volunteer." The former was to be enrolled annually. The members of the active or volunteer force were to provide their uniforms and clothing free, but they were to receive pay for a specified number of days' drill in the year. In 1859 the volunteer militia were ordered to drill for 6 consecutive days in each year, with pay of a dollar a day. In the early sixties schools of military instruction in connection with the regulars, then in Canada, were established with $50 allowance to those who obtained certificates of qualification in a 56 days' course. In all, more than 6,000 certificates were thus obtained. In 1865 the volunteer militia was ordered 16 days' drill at 50c a day. In 1868, after Confederation, a Militia Act for the whole Dominion was passed, which is virtually the system at present existing, with an active militia and a dormant, or sedentary, militia as a reserve. The Militia Act of 1901 is, however, a more decided step in the direction of a standing army in that it provides for a permanent force of 2,000, increased in 1905 to 5,000.

The annual muster day was evidently kept up until Confederation, for Lt. -Col. James Walker of Calgary, commanding officer of the 15th Alberta Light Horse, informs me that he enrolled a company at Ancaster Village in 1867, on May 24th, Capt. Snider being then the commanding officer of the company. It seems amazing to realize, through Col'n. Walker, who is still a most active and efficient officer, what a short time has elapsed since the falling-away took place from the principle of "patriotic" or "universal" service, and the adoption of our present "mercenary or dollar” system. Col. Walker bears testimony to the disrepute into which the one muster-day had fallen, how the fine alone forced out the militia-man, where, indeed, he may not have been attracted by the Captain's customary "treat" at the nearest tavern, and how respect for superiors had almost vanished, when men would give such answers to their names as "Sitting on the fence," or "Chewing a quid of tobacco!"

It might be of interest to quote the opinion of one who fought through 1812-13 and 14, and who lived to see and lament the retrogade steps of new militia enactments. In the biography of the Hon. William Hamilton Merritt, who was Lieut, in the "Niagara Light Dragoons," 1812, and Capt. commanding a troop of "Provincial Dragoons" ("Niagara Frontier Guides") in 1813-14 until taken prisoner at the battle of Lundy's Lane, we find his biographer (J. P. Merritt, his son) states:—"1846.—A new militia bill was brought in, on which he expressed a preference for the old law of 1808, inaugurated under the immortal Brock, whereby flank companies were always kept enrolled and trained for an emergency, thereby forming an active force, ready at any time to take the field, and form a rallying body for the rest. The wisdom of this scheme was well tried in 1812, when nearly the entire militia force was ready to take the field in defence of their country in from 12 to 24 hours after the declaration of war." And again:

"1854.—In March of this year we find the first movement towards establishing a volunteer organization, which afterwards entirely supplanted the old militia, although we doubt if the results of the movements has paid us good interest on the money spent over its institution, as we are still without the efficient home army of 1794, 1812 or even 1837."

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Monday, 15 May 2017

Open Letter to General Herbert (1893)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Open Letter to General Herbert of Canada's Military Force

Not an Army of Defence

Military Notes, The Quebec Daily Telegraph, 15 May 1893

The duty of a public officer is to do as little as he can for his money and to get along as smoothly as he can.

The following open letter addressed to General Herbert explains itself:—

"Sir,—I have on more than one occasion, as an amateur journalist, ventured to criticise some of your acts unfavourably, and have even had the presumption at times to commend you for what you had done and encourage you to go ahead. Having pointed out some of your minor mistakes, you will pardon me if I point out some of your greater ones, and my excuse for doing so is that I have vastly more experience with the Canadian militia than you have. In the first place you seem to imagine that it is meant for an army of defence and should therefore be kept in an efficient state. You were never more mistaken in your life. You do not seem to understand that it is first and foremost a political machine, by means of which friends can be favored and advanced, and foes slighted. But you will say, it is my duty as a public officer to see that the force is kept as efficient as possible and that the country gets the worth of its money. Here you are again mistaken. The duty of a public officer is to do as little as he can for his money and to get along as smoothly as he can. When you go to inspect a battalion you should carefully shut your eyes to all defects, let the regiment be put through a few of the 'show' movements, carefully rehearsed beforehand, and at the close assure them in your most genial manner that you have been delighted with everything you saw, that no volunteer regiment in the world could excel them and that their drill and discipline would do credit to regulars. This will do very well for city battalions, but for country battalions you can alter your speech a little and praise the physique of the men. If that is hopelessly bad you can praise their smart, tidy appearance, but in any case assure the men that they are a credit to their country. A man who keeps a sharp lookout can always find something to praise if his conscience is elastic enough. But that will ruin the force as a military organization and render it next to useless in time of need? Why of course it will, but if the volunteers should be called out for active service against one or two hundred badly armed, half starved semi-savages you can get your 5,000 to 6,000 men within three-quarters of a mile of the enemy's trenches and then make a brilliant bayonet charge that will cover three days. You will thus get to the trenches within 48 hours from the time the enemy had retired and every paper in the country will be singing your praises as the greatest soldier of modern times. When you come back covered with glory and decorations, and perhaps a Parliamentary grant, you will acknowledge that I was right. Above all, do not disturb the existing position of affairs. Let it be your maxim that 'Whatever is is right'."

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Friday, 5 May 2017

The Militia; Active Force (1859)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Adjutant General's Office, Toronto, 5th May, 1859

Militia General Orders – Active Force

The several Corps of the Active Force of the Province will assemble at noon on the 24th instant, Her Majesty's Birthday, and fire a Feu de Joie.

1.     With reference to section Four of the new Militia Act, intituled, An Act to amend and make permanent the Laws relating to the Militia of this Province, Hi Excellency the Right Honorable the Governor General and Commander in Chief, requests Officers commanding Corps of the Active Force, class A, to go through the Drill therein authorized for the present year at such time as may be most convenient to the several Corps.

The number of days drill for which payment is allowed for the present year, under the provisions of said Act, are detailed in section Four aforesaid, which is herewith subjoined for general information, viz.:

"The Volunteer Militia Companies shall be drilled and exercised at such time in each year and at such places as the Commander in Chief may from time to time appoint; the Volunteer Field Batteries being so drilled and exercised during twelve days in each year, of which at least six days shall be consecutive, and the other Volunteer Corps once in each year during six consecutive days, (Sundays not reckoned in either case,) and the Companies under drill being encamped during the whole or any part of the period for drill, if the Commander in Chief sees fit; provided that, inclusive of the pay for the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine, and annually hereafter, the money to be paid for pay for each day on which Companies shall be so drilled, shall be paid only in the month of December of each year, and upon the Pay List and affidavit thereto being duly furnished to the Adjutant General as hereinafter required."

The Second clause of section Seven of the Act aforesaid, relating to the pay of the Volunteer Force for the present year, is also herewith subjoined for general information, viz.:

"For the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine, the non-commissioned officers and men of Class A shall be paid for each days actual and bonâ fide drill the sum of one dollar, and for each horse actually and necessarily present and used for such drill, and belong to or used by such non-commissioned officers or men, the further sum of one dollar per diem."

The numbers of men and horses included in the Pay List for the present year, are not to exceed those previously authorized for the several Corps, exclusive of the Drill Instructors.

2.     It must be distinctly understood that those Volunteer Corps who may have already performed their Drill for 1859, subject to the vote of Parliament for the payment thereof, can only receive the amount voted by Parliament, viz, six days pay under the provisions of section Four as aforesaid.

3.     A copy of the new Law will be forwarded to all Commanding Officers for their information and guidance as soon as possible, and duplicate Pay Lists will also be sent as soon as they are printed.

4.     The several Corps of the Active Force of the Province will assemble at noon on the 24th instant, Her Majesty's Birthday, and fire a Feu de Joie in the manner prescribed by the General Order of the 5th May, 1857.

At the Garrisons of Montreal, Quebec, and Kingston, the Corps of the Active Force will act in conjunction with Her Majesty's Troops in case the Officers commanding the Garrisons at those stations should desire such co-operation; and the Officers in command of Corps of the Volunteer Force will place themselves in communication with the Officers commanding Her Majesty's Troops for that purpose.

5.     It having been brought to the notice of the Commander in Chief that the Muzzles of some of the Rifled Muskets belonging to certain Volunteer Corps have coarsely filed on the outside to enable the bayonets to slip on more easily, and that the Nipples of some of the said Muskets have also been filed and altered, His Excellency hereby expressly forbids such practices and will hold Commanding Officers of Corps responsible for the due observance of this order; and in the event of the Arms of Accoutrements requiring to be repaired at any time, such repairs must be effected by a competent Tradesman.

By Command of His Excellency the Right Honourable the Governor General and Commander in Chief.
D. Macdonnell,
A. de Salaberry, Lt. Col.

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Sunday, 30 April 2017

Travel by Railway and Steamboat, Canadian Militia (1868)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Travel by Railway and Steamboat, Canadian Militia (1868)

Canadian Volunteer's Hand Book for Field Service, compiled by Major T.C. Scoble, 37th Battalion (Haldimand Rifles), C. V. M., 1868

Any spirituous liquors in possession of the men to be taken away and destroyed. The men should have been forbidden to take any liquor with them before starting.

When travelling by Railroad.

Battalions embarking on the railroad should form line fronting towards the train, each company being immediately opposite the car which they are intended to occupy, and on the command being given, should file in from both flanks; advancing arms if infantry, shouldering if rifles. The flank men should proceed to the middle of the car and take their seats in an orderly manner. In disembarking the men nearest the door, will be the first to leave, and will be instructed to take their proper places on the platform at once. A non-commissioned officer should be stationed at each door, who will prevent any man standing on the platform of the car, or leaving it at any stopping-places.

Officers should always be in the car containing their companies.

No men are to be allowed to get out of the carriages during a railroad journey except by special permission; or to get off a steamer at intermediate landing places.

The officer commanding is to see that the railroad cars are provided with ample supply of drinking water.

When travelling by Steamboat

The men should embark or disembark in a systematic and orderly manner. The men going on board should be at once marched away from the gangways and form up on deck, no man being allowed to leave the ranks until all are on board. They may then be permitted to pile arms, or place them in some safe place with their accoutrements, where all can be kept together, and a guard mounted over them, care must be taken that ammunition is placed in safety, with a sentinel mounted over it.

Any spirituous liquors in possession of the men to be taken away and destroyed. The men should have been forbidden to take any liquor with them before starting.

In steamers, no man should be allowed to tipple at the bar and a non-commissioned officer should be placed over the bar to prevent it.

The officers should constantly go among the men during a railway or steamboat journey, to attend to their wants, and to enforce orderly behaviour ; and during night journeys at least one officer per company should always be up, in addition to the officer detailed for duty, and visit the men frequently.

Complaints have been frequent that volunteers travelling by railway have committed wanton damages to the cars. It is certainly in the power of an attentive officer to prevent this. The commanding officer should observe the condition of the cars before entering, and again immediately before leaving. If auy damage has been committed, the station master should be requested to assess it, and if the individuals who have committed are not known: it must be charged against the pay of the company occupying the car. Before entering the car, men should be warned of this regulation.

If the officer commanding troops moved by railway or steamboat is not provided with a regular transport requisition, be will give the conductor, or purser, a voucher for the service performed, specifying the place and hour of departure, and stating the number of officers and men conveyed." — Regulations respecting Volunteer Militia.

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Thursday, 27 April 2017

School of Military Instruction, 1865
Topic: Canadian Militia

Militia General Orders

His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief has made arrangements with His Excellency the Lieutenant General Commanding Her Majesty's Forces in British North America, for the establishment of a School of Military Instruction at London.

Quebec, 27th April, 1865

Service Militia, Canada

General Orders, No. 1

His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief has made arrangements with His Excellency the Lieutenant General Commanding Her Majesty's Forces in British North America, for the establishment of a School of Military Instruction at London, in connection with the 1st Battalion of the 16th Regiment of Her Majesty's Forces.

This school will be opened for the reception of candidates, on Tuesday, the 16th day of May proximo, and His Excellency is pleased to order the following Rules and Regulations for the guidance of all concerned, viz.:

1.     All Candidates for Commissions in the "Service" Militia, will be required before appointment, to obtain a certificate, as hereinafter mentioned, from the Commandant of one of the Schools of Military Instruction; and no person shall be appointed or promoted to the rank of Field Officer in the "Service" Militia who shall not have obtained a "First class" certificate.

2.      A "First class" certificate shall be given to those candidates who shall have proved themselves, to the satisfaction of the Commandant of the School of Military Instruction, able to drill and handle a Battalion in the field, and who shall have acquired a competent acquaintance with the internal economy of a Battalion.

3.     A "Second class" certificate shall be given to those candidates who shall have proved themselves able to command a Company at Battalion drill, and to drill Company at "Company drill," and who shall have acquired a competent acquaintance with the internal economy of a Company and the duties of a Company officer.

4.     All candidates for admission to the Schools of Military Instruction will be required, before admission, to satisfy a Board of officers of their competence for the position of commissioned officers of the Militia.

5.     No candidate shall be permitted to remain at any of the Schools of Military Instruction after he shall have obtained a second class certificate, without the special permission of the Commander in Chief.

6.     No certificate of either class shall be given to any candidate who is not himself perfectly drilled as a private soldier.

7.     No candidate shall be permitted to remain at any of the schools for a longer period than three calendar months from the date of his entry.

8.     The traveling expenses of all candidates in coming to, and returning to their homes from the school shall be paid.

9.     All candidates on obtaining a "Second Class" Certificate, shall be paid the sum of Fifty dollars, and on obtaining a "First Class" certificate, the further sum of Fifty dollars in addition.

10.     All Candidates for Commissions, while attending the school, shall be considered for all purposes of drill and discipline to be attached to the Regiment which shall constitute the School of Instruction; and it shall be competent to the Commander-in-Chief, on a representation from the Commandant, to dismiss any candidate from the school, for misconduct or other sufficient cause.

11.     Candidates for Commissions, while attending the school, shall not be Members of the Mess of the Regiment which constitutes the school.

No. 2.

The following officers are appointed as a Board of Examiners of candidates for admission to the School of Military Instruction at London:—

  • The Commandant of the School,
  • Lieut.-Colonel Shanly, Commanding Volunteers,
  • Major Moffat, Brigade Major.

By Command of His Excellency the Right Honorable the Governor General and Commander-in-Chief.
Walker Powell, Lt.-Colonel, Deputy Adjutant General of Militia, Upper Canada

The Senior Subaltern

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Saturday, 22 April 2017

Militia Notes; Sherbrooke, Quebec (1899)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Militia Notes; Sherbrooke, Quebec (1899)

Drill Season Opens—The Drill Shed—Band Will Be Under Regimental Control

The Examiner, Sherbrooke, Quebec, 13 March 1899

The 53rd Regiment in Sherbrooke would become The Sherbrooke Hussars.
The Regiment would not get a new Armoury until 1909, the structure is listed on Canada's Historic Places: Sherbrooke Armoury.

The drill season has opened, but up to the present there has not been the interest manifested either by the men or non-coms. that should be apparent at the opening of the season's work. Owing to the unsuitable condition of the Drill Shed the Battalion has been compelled to rent the hall in Griffith's Block for drill purposes. The room is a very comfortable one and much of the inconvenience that was sometimes felt in the old quarters is done away with.

Recruiting is very slow. This should not be the case. There are a large number of the young men of the city who would find it very profitable from a recreation point of view to enrol themselves in the Canadian Militia. Apart from that it should be the desire of every eligible young man to know something of drill and fire arms. The non-coms., therefore, should be alive to their duty and keep out 53rd Battalion up to the high state of proficiency which has characterized it in the past.

There is every prospect of the Battalion spending a few days under canvas this year at some central point. That is if the mobilization scheme, which is reported from headquarters will take place this year, matures. This would be of lasting benefit to the militia. There is too much ceremonial drill now gone through by the militia, and it is to be hoped that they will now get down and learn something more of the work of a soldier than that of marching past and trooping the colours.

Speaking of a new drill shed it is earnestly hoped that when the deputation from City Hall and Board of Trade interview the Government that they will receive some definite line of action. Certainly there is more than need for a drill shed. It is in a most deplorable condition, and is certainly not at all adequate for the use of the battalion. The Government cannot be ignorant of the state of affairs for an officer was here last fall and inspected the building. It is practically no use to the Battalion, for as above stated drill goes on in a hired hall and the armouries are in the post office building, in two rooms on the top story, alongside the dwelling rooms of the caretaker of the building. Certainly not at all a desirable place for either the caretaker or the Battalion.

Classes have been formed for the purpose of taking part in the proposed tournament which will be held shortly in this city in aid of the Battalion fund.

The 53rd Batt. Band will in future be under the control of the regiment. This was decided at a joint meeting of the Regimental Committee and band on Friday night. This is a step in the right direction, and will have the effect of placing the band on a much better footing. Negotiations are now going on for the purpose of securing a first class leader. The prospects are bright for the band this season, as it is the intention to considerably augment it.

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Saturday, 15 April 2017

Calling Out the Militia and Rates of Pay (1865)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Calling Out the Militia and Rates of Pay (1865)

Ottawa, 15th November, 1865

Militia General Orders

Canada Gazette, Ottawa, Saturday, November 18, 1865

1.     His Excellency the Administrator of the Government and Commander-in-Chief, having had under consideration the possibility that raids or predatory incursions on the Frontier of Canada, may be attempted during the winter, by persons ill disposed to Her Majesty's Government, to the prejudice of the Province and the annoyance and injury of Her Majesty's subjects therein;

And being impressed with the importance of aiding Her Majesty's troops in repelling such attempts, and for that purpose of placing a portion of the Volunteer Force on active service;

His Excellency directs one Volunteer Company be called out for service, for as long a period as may be thought necessary by His Excellency, from each of the undermentioned places, viz.:

Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Morrisburgh, Toronto, Port Hope, Hamilton, Woodstock, London;—the Companies so called out to be stationed at such places as His Excellency the Lieutenant General Commanding shall direct:

And that the said Volunteer Force shall, during the time it remains on active service, be placed under the command of His Excellency Lieutenant General Sir John Michael, Commanding her Majesty's Forces in North America; and that it shall be subject to the Queen's Regulations and Orders for the Army, to the Rules and Articles of War, to the Act for punishing mutiny and desertion, and to all other laws now applicable to Her Majesty's Troops in this Province, not inconsistent with the Acts respecting Volunteer Militia.

2.     The rates of pay of the Force so called out for Service are fixed for the below mentioned ranks, respectively, as follows:

Ranks.Rate of pay per day.Daily rate of allowance in lieu of barracks, rations, and all other allowances.
Lieut. Colonel$4.87$1.00
Adjutant with rank of Lieutenant2.44.90
Adjutant with rank of Ensign2.13.90

And that in addition to the free rations and Lodging, the Non-Commissioned Officers and privates be paid at the daily rate following:

Rank.Rate of pay per day. (cts.)
Quarter-Master Serjeant45
Paymaster's Clerk45
Orderly Room Clerk45
Hospital Serjeant45
Pay Serjeants40

3.     The Officers in Command of the different posts where the above named Volunteer Companies may be stationed shall receive all orders from the Lieutenant General Commanding, and make all reports direct to such Officers as the Lieutenant General may appoint; with the exception of matters related to finance and promotions, which are to be referred direct to the Adjutant General of Militia.

4.     His Excellency calls on all Officers in Command of Volunteer Corps in Canada to complete their numbers, and to hold themselves with their respective Corps in readiness for actual service, and to march at a moment's notice to such places as may be indicated to them.

5.     The undermentioned Officers are appointed to act temporarily, as below, viz.:

In Canada West

  • As Assistant Adjutants General:
    • Lt. Col. W.S. Durie, Commdg. 2nd Battn, "Queen's Own" Rifles, Toronto.
    • Lt. Col. Samuel Peters Jarvis, 82nd Regiment, Adjutant Staff College.
  • As Deputy Assistant Adjutants General:
    • Lt. Col. J.B. Taylor, Commanding Oxford Rifles, Woodstock.
    • Lt. Col. F.T. Acherly, late 30th Regiment.

In Canada East

  • As Assistant Adjutants General:
    • Lt. Col. W. Osborne Smith, Commd. Victoria Volunteer Rifles, Montreal.
    • Lt. Col. L.T. Suzor, Brigade Major, Quebec.
  • As Deputy Assistant Adjutants General:
    • Major George Browne, late 69th Regiment.
    • Lieut. L.A. Casault, late 109th Regiment.

Major T. de Montenach will perform the duty of Brigade Major at Quebec, during the employment of Lieutenant Colonel Suzor, on other duty.

6.     Major Hill, of the 1st (or Prince of Wales') Regiment, Volunteer Rifles, of Montreal, is appointed major in Command of the Volunteer Force to be stationed at Sandwich, Windsor and Sarnia.

By Command of His Excellency the Administrator of the Government and Commander-in-Chief.
P.L. MacDougall,
Colonel, Adjutant General of Militia,

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Saturday, 28 January 2017 11:14 AM EST
Saturday, 8 April 2017

The Canadian Militia (1860)
Topic: Canadian Militia

The Canadian Militia (1860)

(To the Editor of the Morning Chronicle)
The Morning Chronicle, Quebec, 6 November 1860

To His Excellency Lieut.-General Sir Fenwick Williams, Bart., Administrator of the Government

In my former communications I proposed some change in the Active Volunteer Militia for of the Province, Which I believe will, if adopted, have the effect of rendering that force much more efficient than it is at present. The cost of maintaining the force, under the proposed arrangement (about £12,000 per annum) would be much less than under the present system. It is satisfactory to be able to state that, every brother officer of the volunteers to who I have spoken, has expressed his approval of the changes proposed in my letter.

Militia Staff

Colonel Sewell has kindly favoured me with his manuscript, which gives full details of the plan proposed by him for the formation of militia staff.

I therefore proceed to notice the leading points, as an officer of long experience who has seen some service in the army, and who had taken a warm interest in everything relating to the Canadian Militia for the last forty years, his plan deserves the careful attention of the Government, and of every Canadian who takes an interest in the welfare of the country.

The Colonel proposes that the Government should lay out certain portions of wild lands at "Militia locations" in different parts of the Province; those locations would be surveyed, and marked off into lots of 100 acres each. Volunteers would then be called for, each man receiving his 100 acres, upon which he would settle, and proceed to clear a portion of his land. The term of service for which he would engage would be 12 years, at the expiration of which the land would belong to him forever, on his paying one shilling per acre; the money so obtained by the Government to be placed to the credit of the Militia Fund.

The men would be told off in companies of 40 men each; over each company would be placed a captain of militia staff, and a lieutenant, who would receive their lots of 300 acres each, upon completing six years service, at the same rate as the men. Each location might contain a battalion, say 10 companies of 40 men each. Six of these "militia locations" in different parts of the province would thus give to us a force of 2400 bayonets. The companies would be numbered from 1 to 60, and would represent and constitute the staff of sixty battalions of the Canadian Militia. The men would be properly drilled, as hereafter described. Each company would bear the number of the battalion district to which it appertained; and, in case of threatened invasion or war, would be ordered to proceed to that district. For instance, say that the Island of Orleans was battalion district No. 26; the captain of No. 26 company militia staff would then be ordered to take his men to the Island, and to form as battalion out of the men residing on the Island who would be liable to service, appointing 24 of the most intelligent men as sergeants and the remaining 16 as captains. The staff captain would then receive the rank of lieut. colonel and take command of the battalion, the staff lieutenant becoming major.

Those 40 well drilled men in the battalion would be of great service in instructing the men in the duties of a soldier, indeed without their aid it would require a long time to bring the Battalion up to that degree of efficiency which would warrant its being brought into the presence of a hostile force.

After the men would have built their log homes, and become somewhat settled on their land, they should set to work and make good serviceable roads from the location to a turnpike road or to the nearest railway station. For this work they would be paid by the government; they would, of course, work cheaply, and this would be a first rate method of opening up the country. Intending settlers would take advantage of those good roads and in a short time the land for miles around the Militia locations would be taken up for settlement, even at an advanced rate of purchase.

Colonel Sewell proposes that the law allow the men to be ballotted for, if Volunteers not be forthcoming; but there would be no necessity for this. At the present moment there are thousands of our hardy young countrymen working in the factories of the United States; the agricultural districts of Lower Canada have furnished a large proportion of those young men, who have left their homes and country to seek a living among strangers. The number of our young men, especially farmers' sons in Lower Canada who annually emigrate to the United States, is almost incredible and the man who will show us how to check this constant flow of the bone and sinew of our country to a foreign and (at times) not very friendly neighbour, deserves something of his countrymen. The plan proposed by Colonel Sewell is admirably adapted to effect this, and if adopted will have the effect of turning thousands of acres of comparatively worthless wild lands into well cultivated districts, and enable us to retain in our midst thousands of our hardy young peasantry, the pride of our country who will otherwise, inevitably become citizens of a foreign and rival neighbouring country, and perchance hereafter bear arms against us.

Colonel Sewell proposes to divide the 12 years' service into two portions, the first of three years, the second nine years. The the first period the men shall be drilled for three hours daily during an annual period of three months. In the second period they shall be drilled daily for one month, between seed time and harvest. This amount of drill will be considered sufficient to give the men a good knowledge of the duties as soldiers. The following will show the annual cost for the maintenance of one Battalion of 400 men during the first period; the second period would be less expensive.

10 Staff Captains92days at5s£230 3 0
273days at3s409 10 0
10 Lieutenants92days at4s184 0 0
273days at2s 6d341 5 0
20 Sergeants92days at2s184 0 0
273days at7 1/2 d170 12 6
20 Corporals92days at1s 6d138 0 0
273days at7 1/2 d170 12 6
300 Privates 92days at1s1656 0 0
273days at7 1/2 d3071 5 0
Clothing for 400 men to be renewed every 3 years at £3—£1200 or per annum400 0 0
 £6955 5 0

So that, for maintaining six battalions of Militia Staff equal to 2,400 bayonets, the annual expense to the Province would be about £40,000.

If the Active Volunteer Force were reduced to the footing proposed in my former letter, there would be sufficient quantity of arms in store to arm the Militia Staff. It would perhaps be better to serve out the Enfield Rifles to only one company per battalion; the remainder might be armed with the old musket, till they are better acquainted with the use and care of arms. It would be the duty of the paid Musketry Instructors to devote a portion of their time in instructing the Militia Staff. The uniforms to be served out by the province to the Militia Staff, would be coarse, strong and serviceable; a great coat, forage cap, tunic and trousers. Cloth of our own manufacture, or étoffe de pays, would be cheap and serviceable. Colonel Sewell, in his manuscript, goes into the details of this system, but the outline which I have given will serve to enable the public to form a fair idea of the admirable plan which he has proposed for the organization of our Canadian Militia, which at present is sadly deficient in anything like organization.

In my former communication the annual cost to be incurred for the maintenance of the Volunteer Force was estimated at about £12,000 0
Add cost of maintaining 6 battalions Militia Staff, on the plan proposed by Colonel Sewell40,000 0 0
Expense of Adjutant General's Department, including pay of Field Officers, Storekeepers, repairs of arms, travelling expenses, &c.6,000 0 0
Total annual cost of maintaining Canadian Militia.£58,000 0 0

This amount may seem large at first sight, but when we consider the advantages which the Province would reap from this expenditure, in opening up new districts of country, the encouragement given to emigration, the retaining our young peasantry in the country, the facilities afforded for training 60,000 men in case of war or invasion, and the confidence imparted to the country at large from a knowledge of our strength, those advantages, it must be confessed, would be cheaply acquired.

We must not lose sight of the fact that there would always be at the disposal of the Government, in different parts of the country, a considerable force of well-disciplined men, whose services could be obtained at an hour's notice.

If the expenditure involved is considered too large for the present state of our finances, let a beginning be made, and the experiment tried by forming a location for only one battalion; this would involve an annual expenditure of only £7,000 (seven thousand pounds,) and a short time would show how the system worked.

The large quantity of land that we should bring under cultivation, and the revenue which the Province would derive from the adoption of this plan are well worth considering; while it will be readily admitted that every industrious farmer whom we should induce to settle in Canada, and every young habitant whom we could persuade to remain at home, would materially increase the revenue and develop the resources of the country.

Six Battalions of 400 men each—2400 men at 100 acres per man, would give 240,000 acres, which at the end of twelve years would yield at one shilling per acre£12,000.
If the lands around the Militia location were sold to Emigrants at an annual rent of one shilling per acre, we may safely conclude that double the quantity of land occupied by the Militiamen would be taken up by Emigrants. Thus 480,000 acres at one shilling per acre, would give annually £21,000, or at the end of 12 years£388,000
Total increase in 13 years£300,000
or an average of £25,000 per annum.  

Colonel Sewell also recommends that, at the end of every three years, as the 240 men would have completed their first period, or "active service," a new quota of men should be called out to replace them. The men who had completed their first period of service would then be denominated "available service men," their cost to the province during the nine years of available service would be a mere trifle. By this means a much greater extent of country would be settled, and a larger revenue acquired.

Having thus alluded to the important subject of a properly organized Provincial Militia, a subject which, it is well known, has not failed to receive due attention from your Excellency, as well as from our esteemed Governor General, I may be allowed to express the hope that the powerful influence at your Excellency's command, will not cease to be exerted in favor of our obtaining for Canada, a system of Colonial defence which shall be consistent with our means, and commensurate with the growing requirements of this important portion of the British empire, always bearing in mind the axiom of those dark and unsettled times, "the best was to preserve peace is to be prepared for war."

An Officer of Volunteers.
Quebec, 3rd November, 1860.

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Thursday, 30 March 2017

The Militia Camp; 18 Sep 1885
Topic: Canadian Militia

The Militia Camp; 18 Sep 1885

General Middleton to be Here on Tuesday
The Review Fixed for Wednesday the 22nd

The easiest solution of the difficulty would be to abolish the salute altogether. It takes a long time to learn, and when a man does know it he can't shoot at an enemy with any greater degree of precision.

The London Advertiser, London, Ont., 18 September 1885

Wednesday night proved particularly cold on Carling's farm [present location of Wolseley Barracks, London, Ontario], and many of the volunteers found it impossible to obtain much sleep. Two blankets is far too little at this season of the year, and if a man puts one under him the other amounts to very little when thrown over him. However, a brisk 6 o'clock parade in the morning set all this right, and gave the men a good appetite for breakfast. Fortunately they fare better in the matter of food than clothing, the eatables furnished by the contractors being of first-class quality.

Rifle Practice

Immediately after breakfast yesterday morning, four companies of the 21st battalion marched to the Cove range and spent the day in rifle practice under the supervision of Major Bigger, musketry instructor. Some very fair scores were made, but the majority of the men show want of practice. The other battalions were put through their marching drill, and they already begin to show rapid improvement. Corps which only go into camp every second year can hardly be expected to turn out a large number of efficient soldiers Still, through the strenuous efforts of energetic officers, the majority of the battalions in the district have been brought to camp in a tolerably fair condition, and some of them far better than could be expected. What some recruits find it hardest to get through their heads, however, is the salute.

The Salute

There are so many different ways, under different circumstances, that this is not to be wondered at. It is easy enough for a volunteer to understand that when passing an officer it is proper to salute with the hand furthest away. He can remember that all right. But when his is required to remember, also, that in case the officer passes him as he stands he has simply to stand at attention; again, if his hands are full, he has only to look toward the officer, or, if he be on a sentry beat, to shoulder arms, and turn to his front for a company officer and present arms for a commanding officer; or if he is mounted, simply to turn his eyes towards the officer; or if he is carrying a rifle, in passing and officer to bring the rifle to the shoulder and pass the left hand across the body and touch the sling. No volunteer with ten days' drill could ever be expected to get all these different modes of salutation down to perfection, and consequently amusing mistakes sometimes occur. For instance, the other day an officer stepped up to a sentry, and said: "Here comes the main guard; see that you present arms properly." The officer was surprised a moment later to see the sentry bring his rifle to the shoulder, cock the hammer, and draw a bead on the leading rank. Another sentry was observed walking up and down his beat with his rifle at the "present," when a staff sergeant was passing. The easiest solution of the difficulty would be to abolish the salute altogether. It takes a long time to learn, and when a man does know it he can't shoot at an enemy with any greater degree of precision.

The Review

General Middleton has intimated that he will probably be hereabout the 22nd inst., and the review has therefore been fixed for the succeeding day. It will commence between 10 and 11 o'clock in the morning and last until about 3. Owing to the presence of three batteries of artillery and four troops of cavalry, together with a larger number of infantry than usual, nearly 1,800 altogether, it is expected it will be much better and more interesting than former ones.

Brigade Orders; Camp, London, Sept. 17

Detail for to-morrow—Field officer of the day, Lt.-Col. Munroe, 22nd Battalion, next for duty, Lt.-Col. Wilkinson, 21st Battalion; surgeon of the day, Surgeon Smith, 28th Battalion; next for duty, Surgeon Holmes, 24th Battalion.

No. 1—All mail matter will be delivered at the provost tent, as per paragraph No. 11, brigade orders, 5th September, inst.

No. 2—No officers' servants or orderlies will be permitted to leave the camp unless properly dressed.

No. 3—The battalion furnishing the duties for the day will detail two non-commissioned officers for gate duty, the one to relieve the other at the main entrance to the camp, and they will be held responsible that all men leaving the camp by the main entrance have passes and are properly dressed. These non-commissioned officers will parade with the main guard, with waist belts and side arms only; any assistance required by these non-commissioned officers will be furnished by the main guard.

No. 4—Two waiting men, properly accoutred, will accompany the several guards at guard-mounting daily.

No. 5—The whole of the brigade will parade tomorrow, in drill order, at 2:45 p.m., rear of the provost tents facing south, the battalion markers to be on the ground five minutes before the hour named to take up the position for their respective corps.


Diarrhoea is rather bad among the men, and a large number are on the sick list from this complaint.

Large numbers of visitors watch the volunteers drilling every afternoon.

To-day the whole brigade will be inspected by Lieut.-Col. Clarke and will march past in double quick time, in open and close column, etc. These movements will be worth witnessing.

The Y.M.C.A. have, as usual, opened a tent upon the ground, where the volunteers are furnushed with accommodations for writing, reading the daily papers, etc., gratis.

Major Martin, on our report the other day, was credited with coming from Tilsonburg. It should have been Tilbury East.

Lieut. Fairbanks, of the London Field Battery, arrived and took up his quarters in the camp to-day. He was warmly welcomed by the "boys."

The drill instructor of the 22nd Battalions is Sergt. Wilson, of the Kentish (England) Regulars. He is an excellent instructor, and has one of the best-drilled, neatest battalions in the camp.

Rev. Mr. Ball, chaplain of the 7th Fusiliers in the Northwest, is again out at camp, and will officiate at the service to the volunteers there on Sunday morning.

A number of volunteers came down to Barnum's circus the other night, and afterwards got drunk. While noisily going along the street a policeman told a sergeant if he wasn't quieter he would arrest him. The sergeant drew his sword-bayonet and dared the policeman to do it, and the policeman accepted the challenge, collared him, and made him put up the sword, and took him to the Police Station. At the request of his captain the magistrate let him off lightly next morning.

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Thursday, 23 March 2017

Field Service Dress for Officers (1892)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Field Service Dress for Officers (1892)

Militia General Orders

Headquarters, Ottawa, 24th March, 1892

General Order (5)—No. 1
Field Service Dress for Officers

The Serge Patrol Jacket of the pattern approved for the Imperial Army has been adopted for the officers of the Canadian Militia, and will be worn in marching, field-day and drill order.

A detailed description is appended and sealed patterns will be issued to the Royal Schools of Instruction to secure uniformity.


Serge Patrol Jacket. Blue; (in Canadian Mounted Rifles and 3rd Prince of Wales' Dragoons, scarlet,) of the same cut as the serge frock now issued at the Royal School of Cavalry, Quebec, for non-commissioned officers and men. Full in the chest, collar and cuffs of the same colour and material as the rest of the jacket. Shoulder-straps of cloth of the colour of the regimental facings, with a small regimental button at the top. Badges of rank in gold.


Blue Serge: Welted seams; stand-up collar, square in front, fastened with one hook and eye, a grenade, two and one-quarter inches long, in gold embroidery at each end; shoulder-straps of the same material as the garment, fastened at the top with a small black netted button, half an inch in diameter, badges of rank embroidered in gold. Five gilt ball-buttons down the front; a slit on each side, sleeves ornamented with flat plait, forming crow's feet six inches from bottom of the cuffs; two inside breast pockets and watch pocket.

Infantry and Engineers

Scarlet Serge: Full in the chest. Collar, cuffs and shoulder-straps of cloth of the same colour of the regimental facings. A small regimental button at the top of the shoulder-strap. Badges of rank in gold. Collar rounded in front with black enamelled leather tab and hook and eye. Two pleats on each side; on the left side an opening for the support of the sword belt. Five small regimental buttons down the front. A patch pocket with pointed flap and small button on each breast. Cuffs pointed five inches deep in front, and two inches deep behind. Scarlet lining, no collar badge.


Rifle Green Serge: Square in front, stand-up collar with hook and eye and black silk tab. A body seam on each side, seven regimental horn buttons down the front. Two pockets on each side with pointed flaps. A small button with tab under each flap. A drawing string inside at the waist. Shoulder-straps of the same material as the garment, a small button at the top. Badges of rank in bronze. Collar and cuffs of the same colour at the regimental facings.

Canadian Army Battle Honours

Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT

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