The Minute Book
Monday, 18 April 2016

Cooking in the Field (1855)
Topic: Army Rations

Cooking in the Field (1855)

"Certain men of each Company should be appointed to cut, and bring wood, others to fetch water, and others to get meat, &c."

Hints on Bivouac and Camp Life; For the Guidance of Young Officers in the Halifax Garrison While Under Canvas for the Summer Months at the North West Arm, Point Pleasant, by Captain Wilford Brett, 76th Regiment, 1855

The following order was issued by the Duke of Wellington, dated Grenada, 28th November, 1812.

"In regard to the good of the Soldier I have often observed and lamented in the late campaign the facility and celerity with which the French Soldiers cooked in comparison with those of our army. The cause of this disadvantage is the same with that of every other description. The want of attention of the Officers to the order of the Army, and to the conduct of their men, and their consequent want of authority over their conduct.

"Certain men of each Company should be appointed to cut, and bring wood, others to fetch water, and others to get meat, &c., to be cooked; and it would be found, if this practice were daily enforced, and a particular hour for seeing their dinner, and for the men dicing, named, as it ought to be, equally as for parade, that cooking would no longer require the inconvenient length cf time which it has been lately found to take, and that the Soldiers would not be exposed to the privation of their food at the moment at which the Army may be engaged in operations with the enemy." [Duke of Wellington's Despatches, vol. vi., pages 181 and 182.]

With a view to carrying out the directions contained in the above order and to establish a system by which the Soldiers shall cook with celerity, Lord Frederick Fitzclarence laid down the following system:—

The Companies having been previously told off by three's, and the Non-Commissioned Officers told off for the following parties, the Regiment will be formed in open or half distance column and ordered to pile arms.

  • Front rank men of 1 file of three's. — Fire-men,
  • Front rank of No. 2 file of three's. — Water-men,
  • Front rank of No. 3 file of three's. — Wood-men,
  • Rear rank of No. 1 file of three's. — Beef-men
  • Rear rank of No. 2 file of three's. — Bread-men,
  • Rear rank of No. 3 file of three's. — Charge of Arms, Packs, &c.

Subaltern Officers will be warned who will take charge of the various parties named, and march them off.

The words of the Commanding Officers of the Battalions will be as follows:

  • "Pile Arms"
  • "Off Packs"
  • "Prepare to Cook"
  • "Out Non-commissioned Officers of Parties."

At this last word of command the Non-Commissioned Officers will place themselves in close column in front of the pivot files of each Company, Non-Commissioned Officers, of fire-men leading, then water-men, wood-men, beef-men, and bread-men.

  • "Out Fire-men" — At this word the fire-men will step to the front and form on the leading non-commissioned Officer.
  • "Out Water-man" — Ditto on the second non-commissioned Officer.
  • "Out Wood-men" — Ditto on third non-commissioned Officer.
  • "Out Beef men" — Ditto on fourth non-commissioned Officer.
  • "Out Bread-men" — Ditto on fifth non-commissioned Officer.
  • The water-men on being called to the front previous to falling in on their non-commissioned Officers, will collect the camp-kettles of the Company when such are provided if not, the whole of the canteens of the front or rear rank, as may be directed by the Officer commanding the Company, and one for every two non-commissioned Officers in case of a blank file, they will take one extra when the rear rank canteens are used. The wood-men will, in like manner, collect the canteen straps and hatchets.

    The beef-men will fall in, each with a bayonet, having been previously warned how many they are to draw rations for.

    The bread-men ditto, with haversacks, having been previously warned how many they are to draw rations for.

    The men told off for the arms, and supernumerary men of messes, to remain with the arms, the latter to be available for any fatigue.

    The uneven number of men, and non-commissioned Officers, are to be divided amongst the messes, so that the bread and meat men, may know how many rations to draw.

    All being ready, the Commanding Officer will face each party towards the place where the bread, meat, &c., may be found, and will direct them to close in on the march upon the companies nearest those points where each party will be taken charge of by the subaltern Officer appointed for that purpose who will be already there, having received directions from the Adjutant.

    IN QUICK TIME. Words of Command:—

    • "Pile Arms"
    • "Off Packs"
    • "Prepare to Cook"

    At this last word of command all the parties will fall in as above detailed on their non-commissioned Officers and be marched off at once by the Commanding Officer.

    The places for the kitchens will be marked off by the Quarter-Master of the Regiment, and the fire-men will be at once marched to him.

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Sunday, 17 April 2016

    Capturing Military History---"20 Questions"
    Topic: Commentary

    Capturing Military History
    "20 Questions"

    The four questions sets follow, please make free use of them, rewrite them, share them. Record your answers, send them to your regimental historian.

    We seldom think of the things we're doing in the present as historical events. This is especially so when we look at the minor, every-day things we do as individuals. "History" is what happened long ago, "history" was made by the notable few that get names in the history books. But that is a view with a strongly short horizon. Each and every day we might do something that, if not recorded in some way, can lead to an unanswered researchers' question in the future.

    With my own interests in military history, medal collecting, and research, I often find myself, or others, delving into the detail of individual, often unrecorded, lives of soldiers, non-commissioned officers and officers. This then leads to general questions as professional and amateur researchers try to understand the lives of their subjects. The day to day life, including the training and experiences of soldiers, the social and cultural environment, and the changes they experienced are all subject to curiosities and questions. The problem is, that many of those details, being considered mundane by the participants, went unrecorded in any consistent manner.

    This trend, undoubtedly part of the flow of human nature, permeates the research of soldiers. "Everybody did basic training, so why record that?" one might ask. But not everyone did the same basic training course, and it's those changes over time that are just as important to understand as the way basic training shapes a civilian into a soldier. And this leaves us with broadly generalized assumptions about soldiers and soldiering.

    About a decade ago, I developed a set of questions to begin capturing more basic reminiscences for my regiment's records from those who were still around to record them. (Unfortunately, the received responses aren't currently available on line.) While each person may have simple singular memories of a part of his or her military career, there is much to be gained when such memories are collected from those who have served in different decades, in different locations, and on different operations (even the same operation over time, or under different employment on the same operations). The "mundane" details are the colorful infill in the tapestry of a regiment's story. The best days and the worst days get recorded, victories and defeats on every scale have their details captured. But the daily life of soldiers, in each era, especially when it includes the evolution of training and equipment, needs to be recorded at every stage to understand the soldier's experience.

    These questions sets were called the "20 Questions" and there were four sets:

    a.     The Young Soldier,
    b.     The Young Officer,
    c.     Sergeants and Warrant Officers, and
    d.     Operations.

    These weren't specific to my regiment, and could be used by any military unit wanting to capture some basic information for their own records. Even if you don't think this information is useful right now, imagine being tasked with writing your unit's history in ten years, how valuable would those personal memories be then, especially of those no longer available to record them. For those who study history of long ago events, the most valuable records are those recorded at the time by those who were there. If you don't think something is worth noting, write it down, you'll probably be the only person to record it.

    The four questions sets follow, please make free use of them, rewrite them, share them. Record your answers, send them to your regimental historian (or save them with instructions in your will for them to be sent to the appropriate recipient, to protect the innocent).

    20 Questions - The Young Soldier

    Please provide: Name, rank achieved, years of service (from - to)

    1.     What year were you recruited?

    2.     Where did you take your basic training and how many weeks did the course run?

    3.     Where did you take your basic infantry training and many weeks did the course run?

    4.     What weapons were you trained to use on your basic infantry training?

    5.     What training events do you best remember from your basic infantry training course?

    6.     When were you posted to the Regiment, what location were you posted to, and to what Battalion, Company and Platoon?

    7.     How many men were in your platoon?

    8.     What vehicles and weapons did the platoon have?

    9.     How often did you go to a live fire range in a year and what weapons did you fire each year?

    10.     How many men lived in the same room in the barracks? How much space did you have to yourself?

    11.     Approximately how many men in your platoon owned a car?

    12.     In general, what was your daily schedule like in garrison?

    13.     How often were you inspected; in your room, on the parade square?

    14.     What was required of you before you could leave the barracks and go downtown?

    15.     How much were you paid each month as a new Private?

    16.     How many days leave did you get each year?

    17.     What did you do each year for an annual fitness test?

    18.     What was the most useful piece of personal kit you were issued at that time?

    19.     What was the least useful piece of personal kit you were issued at that time?

    20.     When the Battalion did a Change of Command parade, how long did you spend on the parade square practicing drill?

    And, for extra credit:

    21.     What was a usual punishment one of your roommates would get for a charge of AWOL?

    20 Questions - Sergeants and Warrant Officers

    Please provide: Name, rank achieved, years of service (from - to)

    1.     What year were you recruited? What year were you promoted to the rank of Sergeant?

    2.     Which Battalions of the Regiment and in which Companies have you served?

    3.     What units have you served in outside the four Battalions of the Regiment?

    4.     How many years did you spend at each rank level before you were promoted to Sergeant?

    5.     What leadership training did you have to take before your promotion to Sergeant? When and where did you take this training and how long was the course?

    6.     Were there any particular events that inspired you during your advancement to the Sergeants' and Warrant Officers' Mess?

    7.     What do you feel was the most valuable lesson you received as a developing leader?

    8.     What was your first appointment on promotion to the rank of Sergeant?

    9.     When you commanded a rifle section, what vehicles, weapons and equipment did your section have?

    10.     What was your most challenging appointment as a Sergeant or Warrant Officer?

    11.     What did you find most rewarding about your responsibilities as a Sergeant or Warrant Officer?

    12.     What training experiences have you found most rewarding for yourself and your soldiers?

    13.     What training experiences did you find that best promoted your professional development as an NCO?

    14.     What operational missions have you served on as a Sergeant or Warrant Officer?

    15.     What was the most useful skill you learned that was taught as essential for a Sergeant or Warrant Officer to know?

    16.     What was the least useful skill you learned that you were told would be essential for a Sergeant or Warrant Officer to know?

    17.     What type of training do you think would have been more useful to receive, or to receive more of, before being promoted to Sergeant and assuming the leadership responsibilities of that rank?

    18.     What job or task have you had that you think every new Senior NCO should experience?

    19.     If you could give advice to a young soldier starting his or her military career in the Infantry, what would you offer?

    20.     If you could give advice to a young NCO about to be promoted into the Sergeant's and Warrant Officers' mess, what would you offer?

    And, for extra credit:

    21.     Accepting that "no names, no pack drill" is a time honoured practice … what was the most outrageous act you remember a peer having to present himself to the RSM to explain?

    Can you provide a photograph of yourself from that period of your career?

    20 Questions - The Young Officer

    Please provide: Name, rank achieved, years of service (from - to)

    1.     What year were you recruited?

    2.     What was your entry plan as an officer? How long was it between enrolment and commissioning for you?

    3.     Where did you take your basic officer training and how many weeks did the course run?

    4.     Where did you take your infantry officer training and many weeks did the course(s) run?

    5.     What training events do you best remember from your infantry officer training?

    6.     When were you posted to the Regiment, what location were you posted to, and to what Battalion, Company and Platoon?

    7.     How many men were in your platoon?

    8.     What vehicles and weapons did the platoon have? What was your personal weapon?

    9.     How long, on average, could you expect to be a rifle platoon commander when you joined the Battalion?

    10.     Approximately how many young officers in the battalion lived in the barracks, and how long was it before you could request permission to move out on the economy?

    11.     What was the best aspect about being a platoon commander? What was your least favourite task as a platoon commander?

    12.     How often were you expected to be at the Officers' Mess? Daily? Weekly? Monthly?

    13.     How often did you attend Mess Dinners? How long were you in the dining room during the longest Mess Dinner you remember attending?

    14.     What standard of dress were you expected to maintain in your off-duty hours?

    15.     How much were you paid each month as a new officer?

    16.     Were junior officers often sent on additional training courses? What courses did you attend outside the battalion as a young officer?

    17.     What exercise or training event did you find that best promoted your development as a young officer?

    18.     What type training would you have liked to do more of if you'd had the opportunity?

    19.     Were there any particular battalion eccentricities (dress or deportment) that all officers' in your Battalion were expected to follow?

    20.     How often might you normally have been the Duty Officer for the Battalion or the Base? What was the oddest duty you had to perform as the Duty officer?

    And, for extra credit:

    21.     What was the greatest number of extra duties you remember a peer getting, and, if not sworn to secrecy, what were they for?

    20 Questions - Operations

    Please provide: Name, rank achieved, years of service (from - to)

    1.     What Operation did you serve on?

    2.     Where did the operation take place?

    3.     What unit (Bn/Coy/Pl) of the Regiment were you with?

    4.     What rank and position did you hold?

    5.     What were the dates of your deployment?

    6.     How long did the unit spend conducting pre-deployment training? How much of this time was spent on exercises at your local base, or away from home?

    7.     In general, what subjects were covered during pre-deployment training? Did you receive briefings or training on the culture of the country you would be visiting?

    8.     How did you deploy to the theatre of operations and how long were you in transit from Canada to the operational area?

    9.     What was your weekly work schedule like during the operation?

    10.     What were the usual types of tasks you performed on a daily or weekly basis on the operation?

    11.     What was the weather like during your tour?

    12.     What were your living conditions in theatre (type of quarters, personal space allocation, numbers of personnel living together)?

    13.     What were the rations like during the operations (type, variety, personal opinion on general quality)?

    14.     Did the Battalion celebrate holidays and Regimental Days as special occasions? Do you remember any particular events that stand out in your mind?

    15.     What weapons and equipment did your section/platoon employ during this operation? Was any new equipment issued during the operation?

    16.     In a few words, can you describe your general impression of the physical terrain of the country you were in?

    17.     What entertainments or diversions were available during your off hours?

    18.     How much leave could you expect during the tour, what were your options (locations, travel of spouse) for this leave?

    19.     Were there any small locally available souvenirs that soldiers purchased that still remind you of the tour when you see them?

    20.     How did you transition out of country back to Canada? How long was it between your last 'duty' and your return to family?

    And, for extra credit:

    21.     What medal did you receive for this operation?

    Can you provide a photograph of yourself from the operation?

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Saturday, 16 April 2016

    The Army of Canada (1873)
    Topic: Canadian Militia

    The Army of Canada (1873)

    The Victoria Daily Standard, 16 April 1873
    From the Broad Arrow

    The editor of the Army List has at last deigned to recognize the existence of the Canadian Militia. The February issue devotes no less than forty pages to a list of the officers of the several corps of which the force consists. Indeed, the greatest part of the space set apart for the Colonial Militia and Volunteers is absorbed by Canada, and the gross negligence or blundering, or both, which for many months has led to the omission of all mention of so important a force as the Dominion Army undoubtedly is, seems the more inexcusable when its importance in comparison with similar bodies is made apparent. It has always been understood in this country that Canada boasted a militia well organized and of considerable numerical strength, but the British public can have scarcely been prepared to find that the colony possessed an army which on paper at least has such a very imposing appearance. Nor is there any reason to suppose that Canada has not a tangible existence. The colony itself is perfectly content to be left to its own self-defence, but this self-confidence is perhaps the most satisfactory assurance it is possible to have of the efficiency of its militia, for it is a characteristic trait in the British character to underrate rather than overrate the value of existing institutions.

    As the current Army List however, for the first time supplies us with the details of the Canadian Militia, it is rather more with a view to setting forth the materials of which the force is composed than of dealing with the question of its efficiency and utility, that we in this place comment on its existence. Commencing with a Commander-in-Chief, "Her Majesty the Queen personally, or by the Governor-General as her representative," duly furnished with a brace of aides-de-camp, there follows a very complete staff, headed by an Inspector of Artillery and Stores, and comprising Deputy-Adjutants-General, District Paymasters and Brigade Majors.

    The Army itself seems to have been arranged with a view, to being assimilated as nearly as possible to the Imperial force. The cavalry is headed by a troops of the Governor-General's Body Guard, which we may regard as the Life Guard of the colony, and then follows the cavalry of the line, consisting of forty-seven troops, some of which are arranged regimentally, having a separate and independent existence. The somewhat complicated appearance of the cavalry force in the Army List however, suggested that is has been organized rather with a view to practical usefulness than to compliance with red-tape traditions, and such being the case, no fault is to be found with then uneven strength of the various corps.

    The same system, moreover, would seem to have been adopted with regard to the Artillery. Sixteen batteries of Field Artillery, stationed at various places, head the "List" and the Garrison Artillery is so arranged that whole brigades are quartered in the principal cities, while single batteries are located at the smaller towns. The strength of the artillery force is not quite in proportion with the rest of the army, but it would seem that the Canadians are alive to the increasing importance of this arm of the Service, for schools of gunnery are established both at Kingston and Quebec.

    The Canadian Engineers number but four companies, and as not even these possess the proper number of officers, it would seem that the ordnance corps generally were at present the weak features of the Service.

    It is, however, in the Infantry and Rifle Regiments that the real military strength of Canada is recognisable. Like our own army, the Canadian Militia List begins with a regiment of Foot Guards, the headquarters of which are at Ottawa, and then follow the Rifle battalions of which there are three, rejoicing the in the distinctive titles of "Prince of Wales Regiment," "Queen's own Rifles of Toronto" and "Victoria Volunteers of Montreal."

    The total number of infantry regiments is seventy-eight, none less than five companies strong, while many corps consist of ten companies. The average strength, however, of the regiments is eight companies, a respectable number for a militia force. The regiments, moreover, seem not only to possess distinctive titles, but to have preserved traditions of their own. Amongst the former, the most noticeable are "Les Voltigeurs de Quebec"; the "Argyle Light Infantry" with "Nulli Secundus" for their motto; the "St. Clair Borderers," "The Simcoe Foresters," "The Huntington Borderers," with "Front River" on their colours; "The Lisgar Rifles," a title suggestively recent, "Les Voltigeurs de Beauharnois" and "The 78th Highlanders." Most of the regiments boast of a motto, and many add to this a "distinctive device."

    Next in order to what may be termed the regular infantry regiments, come the "Provisional Battalions of Infantry or Rifles," which seem to have been organized after the fashion of our Administrative Volunteer Battalions at home; of these there are twelve, comprising about five outlying companies each, to which are added nearly fifty "Independent companies," located at placed too remote to allow of their being attached to a provisional battalion.

    Lastly comes the "Grand Trunk Railway Brigade," which is quite a little army itself, comprising, as it does, Artillery, Engineers, and three substantial battalions of rifles. A "temporary corps," on service in Manitoba, concludes the list of what, even as viewed in the pages of the Army List is an interesting and important force.

    Although no doubt the organization of this army by the Canadians is due to the instinct of self-preservation aroused by occurrences which have taken place on the border, yet it is impossible not to feel that the country owes much to Canada for, even at this late period, taking on herself what some conscientious statesmen might take it into their heads was the business of this country. It is here that Mr. Cardwell's colonial policy has long since scattered to the winds the principle that England should pay for the protection of her dependencies, and the Army List sufficiently shows that even the poorest and most defenceless of our colonies are alive to the fact; but should a hostile force invade one of our dependencies it would be questionable how far the counsels of imperial economy would be allowed to prevail, and Canada is undoubtedly the ground on which the question would be most likely to be put to the test. It behoves us, therefore, to appreciate the public spirit which has, partially at all events, relieved this country of a grave responsibility. In the improbable case of invasion, we should no doubt send a considerable force across the Atlantic with all speed; but it is something to feel that in the meantime the Canadian would be in a position to hold their own till succour came if, indeed—thanks to their admirably organized Militia—they could not dispense with assistance altogether.

    Our former colonists at Boston quarreled with their bread-and-butter, and even with their own cup of tea, rather than pay a moderate tax whereby an army and navy for their defence was to be provided. We then had no Cunard steamers, no Atlantic telegraph, no practical means whereby the Honorable Rip Van Winkle could have taken his seat in St. Stephen's as an evidence of the union of representation and taxation. Our Empire is smaller and larger now, and were it not for the millions of barbarians we govern in the East, there would be nothing to prevent the honorable member for Ottawa and the honorable ember for Melbourne embellishing London society, and becoming material for Punch's two augurs. As it is, we have, rightly or wrongly, devised another means of developing the military strength of the Empire,—we have graciously recognized the age and vigor of our two sons, released them from pinafores and apron strings, and proposed them for ballot in the military club of the world. Already New Zealand has proved herself able to cope effectually with all her military difficulties. Already Canada has quietly and firmly pushed back into its native whiskey shops the great and loud-sounding Fenian nation in arms. Our colonies, once our sons, but in future our brothers, have acted nobly and wisely. Under a more just and liberal policy than that under which the old American colonies thought they ought to grown, Canada and our colonies of to-day have been promoted to self-respect and self-dependence. It must be the future policy of England to throw the whole power of the Empire forward to the support of Canada, whenever, under any pretext, her territory is threatened. Meantime, what a satire it is on narrow-minded modern military nomenclature to speak of Canadian, or in fact any other British militia, simply as auxiliaries.

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Updated: Sunday, 20 March 2016 7:09 PM EDT
    Friday, 15 April 2016

    Gold Lace
    Topic: Militaria

    Gold Lace

    The Capital, Fredericton, N.B., 30 October, 1880

    It seems the new Major-General commanding the militia has taken exception to the wearing of gold lace by our militia. A writer in last Saturday's Toronto Globe says:

    "But there is a feature—an historical one—in connection with the subject that deserves attention, and I remember when the militia was more active than now in the face of danger to the peace of the country, this historical point was brought into prominence. I simply suggest that a certain warrant, signed by the King after the war of 1812, be unearthed. I believe it lies somewhere in the militias archives, having been transferred from the Public Record Office. According to an old officer, now dead, who was familiar with it, this warrant authorizes the Canadian militia—a Royal force, by the way—to wear the same uniform as His Majesty's "Royal Regiment." Hence it is that the characteristic feature of the Royal livery has been assumed by the artillery and other arms of the service. My informant, who had served in 1812, also stated that it was owing to an accident that silver was assumed in 1862, the contractor in London, who supplied, in great haste, uniform for the militia at the time of the Trent affair, assuming that "militia" uniforms must be after the style of the English force, which bears silver ornaments. The Canadian militia is of course on a different footing, and takes precedence after the regular army. I think, therefore, that for the sake of history and the prominent position of the Canadian militia in a warlike sense, and in view of services rendered, such as no other militia in the British service ever rendered, this point is worthy of revival and investigation."

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Thursday, 14 April 2016

    Military Leadership, As the Germans See It (1944)
    Topic: Leadership

    Military Leadership, As the Germans See It (1944)

    US War Department, Intelligence Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 7, March 1944


    Several months ago the commanding officer of the Third Panzer Grenadier Division [General der Panzertruppen Fritz-Hubert Gräse] assembled extracts from two German Army manuals, one dealing with military leadership and the other pertaining to the training of officers, and ordered that they be distributed as a single booklet to the officers of his command. In a foreword the commanding officer said, "This booklet should always accompany my officers. It should become an indispensable possession. I expect them to take it out again and again, and study it until its contents have become a guide for their lives and actions. It should force them to test themselves, over and over, to see whether they are adequately prepared to meet the high—and often merciless—demands which will be made upon them.

    "The longer the war lasts, and the more difficult conditions become, the more decisive the work of the officer will be, and the greater his responsibilities.

    "In full recognition of this, and with the recollection of our oath and the example of our comrades who died at Stalingrad, it can no longer be difficult to find the surest expression of our duty: to show our men how to live, which means, after all, to show them how to die."

    In any attempt to gauge the enemy, it is particularly useful to know the broad principles with which he has been indoctrinated. The extracts which follow are therefore of the utmost significance.

    The German View

    "a.     Warfare is an art, free and creative, based on science. It demands the utmost of each person.

    "b.     Warfare is subject to continuous development. New technical devices give it a continuously changing form. Their introduction must be recognized ahead of time, their influence properly evaluated and quickly applied.

    "c.     Situations in war have unlimited variations. They change frequently and suddenly, and cannot always be properly anticipated. Incalculable factors are often of decisive influence. One's will is opposed by the independent will of the enemy. Friction and mistakes are daily occurrences.

    "d.     The science of warfare cannot be compiled exhaustively in rules and regulations. The principles which form this science must be applied as conditions require. Simple actions logically executed are the best way to success.

    "e.     War taxes and tests an individual's physical and emotional powers most rigidly. Therefore, in wartime, character is more essential than pure mental ability. Many a man, overlooked in peacetime, has become great on the field of battle.

    "f.     Leadership in the German Army, and particularly in lower units, must be entrusted to personalities who are capable of sound judgment and clear perception of immediate and possible future situations—men who are self-reliant and firm in their decisions, persevering and energetic in executing them, indifferent to the vicissitudes of war, and intensely aware of the high responsibility resting upon them.

    "g.     The officer is a leader and educator in all fields. Aside from having the ability to size up his men, he must possess superior knowledge and experience, a sense of moral responsibility, and a sense of justice. He must excel at self-discipline and courage.

    "h.     The example and personal bearing of the officer and soldier in charge of men are of decisive influence on the troops. Officers who show coolness, resolution, and daring in face of the enemy carry their men with them to success. But they must also find the way to the hearts of their men and win the prize of their confidence by untiring care and an understanding of their thoughts and feelings. Mutual confidence is the safest guarantee of discipline in moments of emergency and danger.

    "i.     Every leader must commit his whole self in all situations, without fear of responsibility. This cheerful acceptance of responsibility is one of a leader's most noble qualities. However, it must not be interpreted as a license to make independent decisions without regard for the unit as a whole, to neglect carrying out orders with painstaking exactness, or to substitute for obedience an attitude of the l know-it-all'. Self-reliance must not be corrupted by mere arbitrary judgment. Exercised within the proper limits, it can become the basis for great success.

    "j.     The value of a man is still decisive in spite of all technical inventions. Present-day tactics of scattered fighting have increased his significance. Modern battle requires fighting men who can think and act for themselves, who exploit each situation resolutely and boldly after due consideration, and who are permeated by the conviction that success depends on each individual.

    "Great physical endurance, ruthlessness with oneself, will power, self-confidence, and daring enable a man to cope even with the most difficult situations.

    "k.     The value both of leader and man determines the combat efficiency of the unit. The efficiency is augmented by a high standard of quality, care, and condition of arms and equipment. Superior combat efficiency can outweigh numerical superiority. The higher the combat efficiency of units, the greater the possibility of conducting forceful and mobile operations. Superior leadership and combat efficiency of a unit are the most reliable guarantees of victory.

    "l.     Leaders must live with their troops and share with them their danger and hardships, their joys and sufferings. Only in this way can they gain from their own experience a sound judgment of their combat efficiency and their needs and requirements. Every man is responsible, not merely for himself, but also for his comrades. The more capable and enduring must lead and direct the weak and inexperienced. Such is the basis from which a feeling of genuine comradeship may develop. This is as important between the leader and his men as it is among the men themselves.

    "m.     A unit which has been formed only superficially, and which has not been welded together by hard training and education, may easily fail at critical moments or under the impact of unexpected events. Therefore, from the outset of a unit's training, extreme importance must be attached to promoting and preserving strong community ties, as well as to discipline.

    "It is the duty of every commander to counteract immediately—and severely, if necessary—any laxity of discipline, and any tendency toward riotous conduct, plundering, panic, or other harmful influence.

    "Discipline is the main pillar of the German Army. Its strict enforcement is a blessing for all.

    "n.     The fitness of a unit must be preserved for those decisive situations which require supreme effort.

    Leaders who exert their troops unnecessarily, impair their own chance of success. In combat, any expenditure must remain in proper proportion to the desired objective. Objectives which are impossible to attain should not be set, for they lower the confidence of the men in their leader and are detrimental to the morale of the unit.

    "o.     From the youngest soldier on up, every individual must commit his entire emotional, physical, and mental strength to the mission at hand. Only this endeavor can insure the utmost efficiency of the unit in coordinated action and can create men who will, in the hour of danger, lead the weak to bold action.

    "Thus, determined action remains the foremost requirement in warfare. Everyone, the highest commander and the youngest soldier, must always be conscious of the fact that the burden of negligence weighs more heavily than a mistake in the choice of means."

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Wednesday, 13 April 2016

    The Militia Drill
    Topic: Canadian Militia

    The Militia Drill

    Military men will certainly sympathize with the efforts at present being made by the numerous colonels occupying seats in Parliament to secure from the Government a more thorough militia drill than that now given.

    The Toronto Daily Mail, 9 May 1891

    Military men will certainly sympathize with the efforts at present being made by the numerous colonels occupying seats in Parliament to secure from the Government a more thorough militia drill than that now given. If the militia is, in any of its ramifications, wanting in efficiency, the circumstance is attributable, not to lack of spirit of energy on the part of the force, but to the want of opportunity to acquire the necessary knowledge of military life. The city battalions are, for the most part, well disciplined and well prepared for service. Regarding them little or no criticism can be made. But when some of the rural battalions are looked into evidences of weakness are at once discernible. There is nothing wanting here, however, in the way of physique or of willingness to perform duties undertaken. Whatever is amiss is the result of the system. The rule is that all battalions shall be drilled in camp once every two years. This regulation is not universally observed. It has been stated that there is a battalion which has not enjoyed camp advantages for many years. But the “every other year” plan is not productive of good results in all cases, because it is accompanied by the three-year enlistment system. A volunteer may join on an off year. The following year he goes to camp, and in the next year he remains at home. Thus his three years' experience gives him but ten days genuine instruction. Nor is the instruction invariably calculated to make the pupil perfect. A man may learn to sleep in his cloths on the damp ground, to cook rations, and to perform minor duties; but his introduction to the weapon he would have to use in war is too sudden and too short to be of actual service to him. The men are allowed to fire a limited number of rounds at a target in the presence of a musketry instructor, and there their education in the use of the rifle terminates. What stands in the way of a more perfect education is the expense the enterprise would involve. Among some military experts the belief is entertained that it would have paid us better to undertake this expense than to increase the batteries and infantry companies now doing permanent service. The regular companies certainly cost something, and it stands to reason that their drafts upon the general militia fund reduce the amount available for the instruction of the country corps. In a recent article Captain Cartwright made several suggestions with regard to militia management that seemed to be worthy at least of consideration. He proposes that all the officers shall be properly certified men. This change can be effected by the offering of sufficient financial inducements to the officers to attend the military schools and pass their examinations. Then the term of service for officers should be restricted, so that young men may reach, through promotion, the higher positions. He also proposes that instead of calling out for annual drill one-half of the entire force, a certain number of every battalion, say ten, shall be brought to camp annually. These, if men who are likely to remain in the service, will be able to turn to account all they learn from their efficient, because certified, officers, and convey a fair idea of soldiering to their comrades. But it would be well for Parliament, before adopting a new system, to examine the old one, and to discover exactly where its weaknesses are, and what their causes may be. A complaint cannot be cured until it has been fully diagnosed.

    Canadian Army Battle Honours

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Tuesday, 12 April 2016

    Active Militia; Rations (1868)
    Topic: Army Rations

    Active Militia; Rations (1868)

    The Canadian Volunteer's Hand Book for Field Service, Major T.C. Scoble, 37th Battalion (Haldimand Rifles), C.V.M., 1868

    The daily ration of a volunteer should consist, as nearly as possible, of the following articles, viz.

    • Bread, one pound and a half;
    • Fresh meat, one pound;
    • Butter, two ounces;
    • Coffee, one-third of an ounce;
    • Tea, one-sixth of an ounce;
    • Sugar, two ounces;
    • Rice, two ounces;
    • Milk, half-a-pint;
    • Potatoes, two pounds and a sufficiency of vegetables for soup.

    The rations must be examined by the "orderly officer" every morning, who will report to the commanding officer if the same or any part thereof be not according to contract, and the commanding officer will forthwith appoint a board who will have power to condemn all or any part of them if found not according to contract, and a similar quantity in their stead will be purchased at the expense of the contractor; a proviso to this effect should be made in all the local contracts.

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Monday, 11 April 2016

    Bayonet and Sabre Fighting
    Topic: Cold Steel

    Bayonet and Sabre Fighting

    The Toronto World, 21 October 1914

    Toronto Central Y.M.C.A. Fencing Club have several members of the various regiments, officers and men, interested in these weapons, and a class is in progress demonstrating bayonet against bayonet, and sabre against sabre, and bayonet against sword. This club is not teaching bayonet drills, but bayonet fighting. The same can be said of the sword.

    The use of the bayonet as a weapon of attack and defence is a necessary part of the instruction of the soldier trained to fight on foot. The club has one of the best equipments in Canada—spring bayonets, masks, gloves, etc., approved by the British War Office regulations. The course covers about twenty lessons. Great importance is given to these lessons, as it is by means of them that the combative spirit is given, and enables one to see, step by step, the fighting application of each detail which they are taught.

    Bayonet fighting is not taught as a parade exercise, and when inspected it is seen in the assault. At the conclusion of the lessons awards are given for proficiency. In the course, a few very practical hints are given for using the bayonet in action:—

    1.     On nearing the enemy.

    2.     On getting to close quarters,

    3.     If opponent commences the attack before you actually deliver your attack.

    4.     Closing with an adversary.

    5.     Confidence in actual contact.

    These instructions are under the direction of one of Canada's specialists, and a close student of scientific swordsmanship.

    Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Updated: Monday, 11 April 2016 12:15 AM EDT
    Sunday, 10 April 2016

    Colour is Trooped as Vimy Memorial
    Topic: Remembrance

    Colour is Trooped as Vimy Memorial

    Guards Recall Heroic Dead Who Helped Capture Ridge
    Ceremony at Armoury
    Young Officer Whose Father Died in Battle Receives Standard—Unit is Reviewed

    Montreal Gazette, 10 April 1935

    Eighteen years ago yesterday an army in khaki, with "Canada" on its war-worn buttons, carved its name in the rock of immortality at a spot in France that will live forever in the history of the ages—Vimy Ridge. Last night, to the beat of drums, the memory of those men who died at the Battle of Vimy was honoured by the Canadian Grenadier Guards in the stately and magnificent ceremony of the Trooping of the Colour.

    On April 9, 1917, the 87th Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (the Canadian Grenadier Guards) went into action with the Canadian Forces at Vimy Ridge. The death toll of officers and men was terrible. A price beyond recompense was paid on that spot, and to the sacrifice made in 1917 the regiment last night gave homage.

    A splash of scarlet across the drill hall, the flash of naked swords and the slow, penetrating beat of the drums saw the battalion perform the intricate measures of that most impressive of all military ceremonies, the Trooping of the Colour.

    A tall young officer in scarlet and black "busby" stepped smartly across the floor as the armoury was hushed into silence, clicked his heels in salute and received from the hands of a fellow officer the wreath-topped Colour. He was Lieutenant P.F.L. Sare. Eighteen years ago his father, Major H.F. Sare, died at the Battle of Vimy in the conflict that was being commemorated last night.

    The magnificent ceremony was carried through with impressive precision. Long lines of scarlet-tunicked men, with rifles sloped, moved slowly through the measures of the ceremony to the music of the scarlet and gold band. The drums, scrolled with the battle honours of the regiment, beat out sharp, staccato orders. Medals gleamed on the breasts of men who were, last night, remembering friends and comrades of Vimy Ridge. Side by side with them marched youths who had only a vague recollection of 1917.

    Stately and impressively the regiment marched past Brigadier W.W.P. Gibsone, C.M.G., D.S.O., O.B.E., officer commanding military district No. 4, who took the salute, and Rene Turek, Consul-General of France, who represented the mother of Vimy Ridge at the ceremony. The battalion was reviewed by Brig. Gibsone, Mr. Turek, and Lieut.-Colonel B.W. Browne, A.A. and Q.M.G.

    Lieut. P.F.L. Sare was Ensign of the Colour. The escort was under the command of Lieut. J.G. Stewart. The band, at the close of the ceremony, played the national anthems of the British Empire and France. The regiment was commanded by Lieut.-Colonel F.R. Phalen, D.S.O., M.C., V.D., the officer commanding the Canadian Grenadier Guards.

    The gallery of the drill hall was packed with visitors who had come to witness the magnificent ceremony. Never before had the Guards conducted the Trooping of the Colour with such precision as they did last night.

    Following the ceremony, regimental cups and medals were presented by Brigadier Gibsone to a number of officers and men.

    Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Saturday, 9 April 2016

    Ashes for Vimy Ridge
    Topic: Vimy Pilgrimage

    Ashes for Vimy Ridge

    Small Cross Burned, Symbolic of War Dead

    The Montreal Gazette, 6 July 1936

    Woodstock, July 5.—(CP)—Joining in an impressive service in Victoria Park today, ex-servicemen and other citizens of Woodstock witnesses the burning of small wooden crosses, symbolic of the community's war dead. The ashes were deposited in a small ivory urn and turned over to the Vimy Pilgrimage party from Woodstock to be scattered on Vimy Ridge.

    Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Friday, 8 April 2016

    Japanese CEF Veterans Going to Vimy with Pilgrimage
    Topic: Vimy Pilgrimage

    Seven Japanese CEF Veterans Going to Vimy with Pilgrimage

    The Montreal Gazette, 16 July 1936

    Seven sons of Nippon will march aboard one of the Vimy Pilgrimage liners this morning to travel with Canada's veterans to the former battlefields of France.

    Wearing the British ex-service button, these Japanese from Vancouver will be honoring fallen comrades when they stand before the Canadian war memorial on Vimy Ridge, July 26. All are former members of the Canadian Corps.

    Arriving from the coast early today the Japanese veterans of the C.E.F. will sail with 6,000 pilgrims of the western world — and the twain will meet, as they did 20 years ago in France, when the ships go out of Montreal to Vimy.

    Some of those veterans who leave this morning will never see the great memorial on the ridge that they helped capture. For the blind are going too. And some will not hear the speeches, or the bands, or the prayers. For the deaf are going. And some will have to be carried to the place where Canada lost so many sons. For the lame and crippled are going.

    And the widows. Many of those whose husbands died at Vimy Ridge, at Passchendaele and Hill 70, and the other battlefields which Canadian soldiers wrote into history, will be aboard the liners sailing out of Montreal on this solemn pilgrimage. Thirty-five war widows from Toronto make up one party, and there will be others from points throughout Canada.

    And the nurses. The women who served in the Great War will be on the decks of the Vimy ships, going back to the places in France where they ministered to the wounded through all the long years of the war. The veterans who sail today will not all be men.

    The wives and children of the pilgrims will make up approximately 50 per cent of the passenger lists in the four liners today, and the fifth sailing tomorrow. The great majority of the married servicemen are taking their families to France and England.

    Complete passenger lists for the five liners total as follows:

    • Montrose, 1,426,
    • Montcalm, 1,512,
    • Ascania, 1,118,
    • Antonia, 1,258,
    • Duchess of Bedford, 1,074.

    elipsis graphic

    "The Epic of Vimy"

    The Epic of Vimy, published by The Legionary after the Vimy Pilgrimage, included a roll of the CEF soldiers and family memebrs who sailed from Canada for the unveiling of the Vimy Memorial in 1936. From this roll, the following name may include some of the soldiers mention in the news article above. (Only one of these three could be foung in the Libarary and Archives database of First World War soldiers by the name as shown here.):

    • Furukawa, Mr. Bunshiro, 50th Bn, Vancouver; wounded while serving with the 50th battalion, and a recipient of the Military Medal.
    • Kegetsu, Mr. Eikicki, 50th Bn, Vancouver
      • Kegetsu, Mrs. Eikicki, Vancouver
      • Kegetsu, Miss Kimiyo, Vancouver
      • Kegetsu, Miss Takako, Vancouver
      • Kegetsu, Mr. Hajime, Vancouver
    • Shinobu, Mr. Saburo, Vancouver

    Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Updated: Friday, 8 April 2016 12:02 AM EDT
    Thursday, 7 April 2016

    Canadian Military Establishments 1893-94
    Topic: Canadian Militia

    Canadian Military Establishments 1893-94

    The Quebec Daily Telegraph, 3 April 1893

    The establishment of the Permanent Force and Active Militia for the year 1893-94 is as follows:—

    Permanent Force

    Active Militia

    • Cavalry – 2038
    • Field artillery – 2354
    • Garrison artillery – 2099
    • Engineers – 90
    • Infantry – 29,500
      • Total Active Militia – 36,081

    Grand total – 37,993 (This does not include the officers and men attached to the staff of brigade offices.)

    Canadian Army Battle Honours

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Wednesday, 6 April 2016

    Artillery Instruction (1884)
    Topic: Drill and Training

    Artillery Instruction (1884)

    Manual of Field Artillery Exercises, Canada, 1884
    From the Preface to the First Edition (1875), by T. Bland Strang, Major, R. Art., Lieut. Col. And Inspector of Artillery for the Dominion

    Land service artillery will be broadly considered as—

    • 1st. Field.
    • 2nd. Siege.
    • 3rd. Garrison.

    The distinctive character of the first is mobility, of the last stability, or tenacity in holding its ground

    Siege artillery holds an intermediate, place between the two.

    Artillery instruction will be divided into—

    • Technical.
    • Tactical.
    • Disciplinary.
    • Scientific

    The last two can only be slightly touched upon in a work like the present.

    The Scientific instruction will, therefore, be limited, at first, to a clear explanation of elementary gunnery, suitable to intelligent Non-commissioned officers, subsequently to be extended to Range finding and rough Surveying, as well as such elementary Fortification as is absolutely necessary for the requirements of an Artillery officer.

    The Technical will include the gun and its ammunition, use, and rules for practice.

    The Tactical will be comprised of drill:

    • 1st. As a steadying training exercise for men and horses.
    • 2nd. As training to surmount obstacles.
    • 3rd. Artillery tactics proper: the movements, selection of position, and wording of guns, before an enemy.

    The Disciplinary portion will include the care and management of men and horses.

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Tuesday, 5 April 2016

    Japanese Army Ration, 1942
    Topic: Army Rations

    Japanese Army Ration, 1942

    US War Department, Military Intelligence Service; Intelligence Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1, September 1942

    1.     General

    Each soldier in the Japanese Army is responsible for his own cooking while in the combat area. As a general rule, however, the men of a squad do their cooking together. No stove or other heating apparatus is carried. Enough food is often cooked in the morning to last throughout the day. Sometimes the Japanese have only rice and salt to eat. Sugar is considered a luxury. It must be obtained in the general area where the operations take place.

    2.     Emergency Five-Day Ration

    Each soldier usually carries enough food to last him for five days in the field; infiltration groups may carry more. At times the Japanese kill and cook dogs, goats, and other small animals to add to their emergency rations. The five-day emergency ration includes:

    a.     Half a pound of hard candy.

    b.     Can of tea.

    c.     Package of compact food.

    d.     Vitamin pills.

    e.     Package of hardtack.

    f.     Small sack of rice.

    3.     Other Types of Emergency Rations

    In Burma the Japanese used two types of emergency rations. One was known as the "A" scale and the other as the "B" scale. Each soldier carried rations for three days on the "A" scale and for one day on the "B" scale. Neither of the rations was to be eaten except on orders of the commanding officer when the unit was separated from its supply column. Each ration under the "A" scale consisted of about 1 pound and 3 ounces of rice (enough for two meals) and one small can of mixed beef and vegetables. The soldier usually cooked the rice in a small bucket which he carried for this purpose. The "B" scale ration consisted of three paper bags of hard biscuits (enough for three meals).

    4.     Field Rations

    These generally are of two types, "normal" and "special." The soldier always carries the special ration, and is issued the normal ration at mealtimes.

    a.     Special Type

    A single ration includes the following:

    • 20.46 ounces of rice (probably polished);
    • 8.113 ounces of biscuit;
    • 5.3 ounces of canned meat (or 2.1 ounces of dried meat);
    • 4.23 ounces of dried vegetables;
    • 1.09 ounces of dried plums, and small quantities of salt, sugar, and sometimes a can of beer made from rice.

    b.     Normal Type

    A single ration of this type includes the following:

    • 23.3 ounces of rice;
    • 7.4 ounces of barley;
    • 7.4 ounces of raw meat;
    • 21.16 ounces of vegetables;
    • 2.1 ounces of pickles and small quantities of flavoring, salt, and sugar.

    5.     Vitamins

    The Japanese are using vitamins to supplement their rations to an unknown extent. Some of the vitamin tablets are known to consist mainly of vitamins A and D.

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Monday, 4 April 2016

    The "Affair" Between a Whaling Captain and a Military Officer
    Topic: Officers

    The "Affair" Between a Whaling Captain and a Military Officer

    'Only eight paces?' cried Lieut. James, a little surprised. 'O, very well'—and he measured it off, and placed his man at his post. Then advancing to Capt. Lovett, he presented him with a pistol.

    The Daily Pittsburgh Gazette, 8 August 1839
    (Boston Merchant Journal)

    Although this story can be found published variously in the 1830s and 1840s, searches for the principals or the brig Cinderella come up empty.

    Perhaps some of our readers may have heard of the story of the duel between old Captain Lovett, of New Bedford, and the English officer in Demerara. It has been variously related—but the only true version is as follows:—

    Captain Zechariah Lovett, after having perfumed several whaling voyages to the Pacific, found himself in command of a small brig belonging to New York, on a voyage to Demerara. He was a worthy man—and a good sailor—his heart was full of the milk of human kindness, but he possessed a noble spirit—which would neither give nor take an insult.

    While his little brig Cinderella lay at anchor in Demerara River, Captain Lovett, one afternoon, entered a Coffee House, where he met with a friend—and they amused themselves by knocking the balls about in the billiard room. Soon after, and before the game was half finished—some English military officers entered, one of whom, Captain Bigbee, stepped up to Capt. Lovett, who was arrayed in a very plain, not to sat ordinary costume, and with a bullying air demanded the table, as himself and brother officers wished to play a match.

    Capt. Lovett gave the red coated gentleman a stern look, but replied with courtesy, that he and his friend had engaged the table, and would play out their game, after which, if the gentlemen wished to play, it was at their service.

    'But we can't wait,' said Capt. Bigbee, in an insolent tone.

    'You must wait,' cooly replied Captain Lovett.

    'But we will do no such thing,' exclaimed the surly Briton—'we came here to play billiards—and have no idea of being disappointed by a couple of fellows who hardly know a mace from a cue, or a ball from a pocket. It will take you all afternoon to finish the game—so clear out!.

    Capt. Lovett and his friend played on.

    'Come,' continued the officer, 'enough of this—-marker, place the balls.' Saying which, with a most impudent air, he seized one of the balls, which Capt. Lovett's opponent had just driven into a pocket, and caught another one which was near him.

    The matter was growing serious. Captain Lovett's eye flashed fire—for although he had mingled a good deal among Quakers, and respected that moral sect for their humanity and quiet demeanor, he was no non-resistant man himself.—He dropped his cue, and doubled up a fist of portentous size. 'Put those balls upon the table, you scoundrel,' exclaimed he, imperatively, 'and leave the room.'

    'Who do you call scoundrel, you Yankee blackguard? Do you know you are talking to one of His majesty's officers? Take that for your impertinence,' at the same time suiting the action to the word, and giving Capt. Lovett a smart rap across the shoulder with his cue. But in an instant he received a blow on the forehead, exactly where Phrenologists locate the organ of Eventuality—which would have felled an ox, and submissively acknowledged the favor by measuring his length upon the floor!

    His brother officer, who were with him, had the good sense to see that Bigbee was to blame—and although they looked rather black at the Yankees, they wisely forbode to molest them further—but assisted the stunned bully to another room, where, by the help of some restoratives, he recovered his senses. His rage and mortification at the result of the rencontre knew no bounds, and with many a bitter oath he declared he would have satisfaction.

    Before Capt. Lovett left the coffee house, a billet was handed him by Lieut. James, which proved to be a challenge—a peremptory challenge from Captain Bigbee, in which it was insisted that arrangements should be made for an early meeting, that he might have the opportunity to wash off the affront he had received, in Capt. Lovett's heart's blood.

    Capt. Lovett smiled when he saw such manifestations of Christian spirit. 'Tell Capt. Bigbee,' said he, 'that I will not baulk him. He shall have the opportunity he so earnestly seeks. Although not a fighting man, I am familiar with the duel laws—and if he will be, tomorrow morning, on the bank of the green canal, near the South Quay, rather a secluded spot, he shall have satisfaction to his heart's content.'

    Lieut. James bowed politely and withdrew.—Capt. Lovett went on board the Cinderella soon after—and ordered his mate, Mr. Starbuck, also a veteran whale hunter, to select the two best harpoons, have them nicely ground, and fitted—as an opportunity might offer on the morrow, of striking a porpoise. Mr. Starbuck obeyed his superior officer with alacrity, although he wondered not a little why Capt. Lovett expected to find porpoises in Demerara River.

    The next morning, as soon as all hands were called, Capt. Lovett ordered the boat to be manned, and requested Mr. Starbuck to take the two harpoons, to each some eight or ten fathoms of rattling stuff were attached, and accompany him on shore. In a few minutes the boat reached the South Quay, where Captain Lovett was met by several of his countrymen, who have been attracted to the spot by rumor of the duel, as well as several merchants and other inhabitants of the place. The one and all remonstrated with Capt. Lovett, for consenting to fight with the English military bully, who was represented as a practised duellist—an expert swordsman, and an unrivaled marksman with a pistol, being sure of his man at twelve paces. Captain Lovett did not, however, show the least inclination to back out—but, on the contrary, seemed more eager for the engagement—'I'll give that quarrelsome fellow a lesson' said he, which will be of service to him—and which he will never forget, so long as his name is Bigbee.'

    The challenger, with his forehead ornamented with a large patch to cover the impression left with the Yankee's knuckles, and his swollen eyes dimly twinkling with anger and mortification through two huge, livid circles, accompanied by his second, soon made his appearance. He was followed by a servant with a pistol case, and an assortment of swords. He bowed stiffly to Capt. Lovett—and Lt. James, approaching the Yankee asking him if he was willing to fight with swords—'If so,' said he, 'I believe we can suit you. We have brought with us the small sword, a neat, gentlemanly weapon—the cut and thrust, good in a melee, and which will answer indifferently well in a duel—and the broadsword and cutlass, which is often preferred by those who are deficient in skill in the use of arms. My friend, Capt. Bigbee, is equally expert with either. You have only to choose. As the challenged party, you have an undoubted right to select your arms.'

    'Of that privilege I am well aware,' replied Captain Lovett, 'and mean to avail, myself of it. I shall not fight with swords.'

    'I expected as much,' resumed Lieut. James, 'and have brought with me a beautiful pair of dueling pistols, with long barrels, rifle bores, and hair triggers. What distance shall I measure off?'

    'Eight paces.'

    'Only eight paces?' cried Lieut. James, a little surprised. 'O, very well'—and he measured it off, and placed his man at his post. Then advancing to Capt. Lovett, he presented him with a pistol.

    'I do not fight with pistols!'

    'Not fight with pistols—after having refused to fight with swords? What brought you here, then?'

    'To fight!' shouted Lovett in a thundering voice, which made the British officer start. 'I am the challenged party, and have a right to choose my weapons, according to the laws of the duello, all the world over—and you may rely upon it I shall not select weapons with which I am not familiar, and with which my antagonist has been practising all his life. Such a proceeding on my part is not only not required by the rules of honor, which after all, is a mere chimera, but would be contrary to all the dictates of common sense. No.—I shall fight with the weapons of honorable warfare, with which I have ever been accustomed. Swords and pistols, indeed!'

    'But, my dear sir,' cried the astonished Lieutenant, 'we must proceed according to rule in this business. What weapons have you fixed upon?' And in fancy's eye he beheld before him a huge blunderbuss, loaded with buckshot.

    Captain Lovell said nothing—but beckoned to Mr. Starbuck, who approached him with great alacrity, bearing the two harpoons. He seized one of the formidable weapons, and thrust it into the hands of Bigbee, who seemed absolutely paralized with astonishment.

    'My weapon,' said he, 'is the javelin—such as the Grecian and Roman knights often fought with, in olden times—a weapon which no man who challenges another, can refuse to fight with at the present day, unless he possesses a mean and craven spirit.'

    Thus saying, he took the station which had been assigned him, at eight paces distant from his startled antagonist. He cooly bared his sinewy arm—grasped the harpoon, and placed himself in an attitude. 'I'll bet,' said he, casting a triumphant look upon his friends, 'a smoked herring against a sperm whale, that I'll drive the harpoon through that fellow's midriff the first throw, and will finish him without the aid of the lance.' 'Mr. Starbuck, fiercely continued Captain Lovett, in a loud and rough voice, such as is seldom heard, excepting on board a Nantucket whaling vessel, when a shoal of whales is in sight, "Stand by to haul that fellow in!"

    The mate grasped the end of the line, his eyes beaming with as much expectation and delight. As if he was steering a boat bow on to an eighty barrel whale, while Captain Lovett poised his harpoon with both hands, keenly eyes the the British Captain—shouted in a tremendous voice, 'Now for it,' and drew back his arm as in the act of throwing the fatal iron!

    The Englishman was a brave man—which is not always the case with bullies—and he had often marched, without flinching, up to the mouth of a cannon. And if he had been in single combat, with an adversary armed with a sword or a pistol, or even a dagger or Queen's arm, he would have borne himself manfully. Indeed, he had already acquired an unenviable notoriety as a duelist, and had killed his man. But the harpoon was a weapon with which he was altogether unacquainted—and the loud and exulting tones of the Yankee captain's voice sounded like a summons to his grave. And when he saw the stalwart Yankee raise the polished iron—and pause for an instant, as if concentrating all his strength to give the fatal blow, a panic terror seized him—his limbs trembled—his features were of a ghastly pallor, and the cold sweat stood in large drops on his forehead. He had not the strength to raise his weapon—and when his grim opponent shouted, 'Now for it,' and shook his deadly spear, the British officer, forgetting his vows of chivalry—his reputation as an officer, and his honor as a duelist, threw his harpoon on the ground, fairly turned his back to his enemy—and fled like a frightened courser from the field, amid the jeers and jibes, and the hurrahs of the multitude assembled by this time on the spot.

    Capt. Bigbee's dueling days were over. No man would fight with him after his adventure with the Yankee. He was overwhelmed with insult and ridicule—and soon found it advisable to change into another regiment. But his story got there before him—and his was soon sent to "Coventry" as a disgraced man. He was compelled, although with great reluctance, to quit the service; and it may with great truth be said, that he never forgot the lesson he had received from the veteran whaler, so long as his name was Bigbee.

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Sunday, 3 April 2016

    Evolution of Individual Weapons
    Topic: Militaria

    Evolution of Individual Weapons

    Military rifles were not always as excellent as they are today.

    US Army FM 23-71; Rifle Marksmanship, July 1964


    1.     Military rifles were not always as excellent as they are today. In the early days, black powder and lead balls were used by every nation. Black powder was smoky, dirty, and inefficient compared with modern propellants. When one of these early rifles was fired, a cloud of white smoke disclosed the rifleman's position, and a thick residue, like carbon and soot, was deposited in the bore of the rifle. Black powder has a lower energy content per cubic centimeter compared with modern rifle pow ders which have high velocities.

    2.     When the lead ball was fired from the rifle it began to lose speed very quickly. A sphere is poorly shaped for fast travel. Lead balls from some of our early military rifles fired at a muzzle speed (velocity) as high as 2,000 feet per second. But at a distance of 100 meters they would slow to about 1,500 feet per second; whereas a bullet from our M1 or M14 rifle today, at an initial velocity of 2,800 feet per second, loses only about 300 feet per second the first 100 meters.

    3.     The lead balls of these early military rifles were often "patched," that is, greased linen, flannel, or thin soft leather was wrapped (and sometimes tied) over the ball. When this greased patch was used it served as a lubricant to ease loading, reduce escaping gas, and keep the ball from losing lead onto the bore as it traveled through it. But sometimes the lead ball was used bare, in which case the bore frequently picked up a lead coating which grew progressively thicker, decreasing the ac curacy with each shot fired until the lead deposit was removed.

    4.     The same problem arose from the rough residue left by the burning of black powder. Unless the bores of those early rifles were washed after each shot, the residue became progressively thicker, making the diameter of the bore smaller. Since most early rifles were muzzle-loaders, it became increasingly difficult to load, and accuracy diminished, due to constantly reduced bore diameter. The effort re quired just to ram a lead ball, patched or not, down 32 or more inches of barrel became first exhausting and then all but impossible.

    5.     The inefficiency of black powder and early projectiles led early rifle makers to build their weapons with longer barrels and in larger caliber bores than our rifles of today. This combination gave as high velocity as could be obtained without making rifles completely awkward to handle and gave the desired killing effect needed for fighting infantry and cavalry. When you cannot propel a missile at high velocity, you must increase the weight in order to get adequate effect. Any increase in weight with a ball projectile results from an increase in diameter.

    6.     In time the round projectile gave way to the elongated one. It had been discovered as early as the late 1700's that elongated missiles were more efficient in flight and traveled to tremendously greater maximum ranges. Massed squad and platoon fire with elongated bullet rifles could be effective at 1,000 meters or more. Several years prior to the war of 1861— 65, the elongated bullet rifle was adopted al most worldwide because it permitted faster loading. Successful methods of making metal cartridge cases had not yet been found, so most of the first bullet rifles were muzzle-loaders too. The early Sharps rifle was one of the exceptions. It was a breech-loader taking a linen cartridge. Because there was no metal cartridge case, such as is used in modern rifles, a portion of the gas generated by the powder flashed out at the juncture of breech-block and receiver of this rifle.

    7.     By 1870 nearly all armies had adopted breech-loading infantry rifles (usually single shot) which usually fired fixed, metallic, black powder, lead bullet cartridges in calibers ranging from .40 to .45. These improved firearms could be fired by a trained soldier 15 or more times a minute. Lever action repeating rifles had been developed to a level of real usability by 1861, but had to be held to lesser powder levels (for design reasons) than was desirable for infantry use. The Spencer and Henry lever- action rifles were used in the war of 1861-65 by many cavalry units. The Spencer carried seven cartridges and the Henry carried 16. Both weapons had a reach of about 225 meters, and the rate of fire was five shots to one, com pared with the standard muzzle-loader.

    8.     The year 1886 was an historic one in infantry rifle design. France adopted a manually operated bolt-action rifle of caliber .32 (8-mm) jacketed bullet design (to prevent melting and failure to spin in the rifling grooves) for use with nitrocellulose (smokeless) powder. The ancient bondage to black powder had been dis solved. Soldiers using these newer rifles found that very little smoke was given off in firing to disclose their positions. By 1888 Britain and Germany used similar new designs. And in 1892 the United States followed suit. By 1898 no modern army was without a smaller caliber repeating rifle of the new type. The new arms were of 5- to 10-shot capacity, ranging in caliber from .32 to .26 as compared to the older .40 to .45 caliber sizes. Nitrocellulose propellants and advances in metallurgy had permitted a reduction in bullet diameter, a retention of adequate shocking; power, an increase in average accuracy and penetration, and a flattening of trajectory (extension of the limit of grazing fire) by as much as 50 percent or more. Logistically, the weight of individual rifle cartridges had dropped by as much as 40 per cent.

    9.     The Springfield 1903 rifle reflected the era of high development in rifles operated manually, which ended in 1936 with the introduction into U.S. service of the Garand design, designated M1. This first of the successful gas-operated rifles of full infantry power outgunned enemy rifles in Europe and the Pacific in the ratio of 3 to 1. It was rugged, sure functioning, powerful, and accurate. The tiring bolt manipulation, so painfully learned by former generations of American soldiers, was no longer necessary.

    10.     The M1 rifle ushered in an era that saw foreign nations scrambling for semiautomatic designs in individual infantry weapons. Britain and France discarded their old, time proven bolt actions and took up the Belgian FN design. Soviet Russia developed as her now standard infantry weapon, a rifle-powered submachine- gun of 30 shot capacity (the AK). And the U.S., exploiting the potential of John G. Garand's M1, has modernized it as the M14 for increased cartridge capacity (20 shots instead of 8) and quick and simple adaptation to the automatic rifle role.

    11.     On 1 May 1957, the Secretary of the Army announced the adoption of the new rifle. The M14 is equipped with a light barrel and is designed primarily to replace the M1 rifle in a semiautomatic fire role. It can be converted to automatic fire by merely replacing the selector lock with a selector lever. The M14 weighs approximately 11 pounds when combat loaded, A bipod will add an additional pound when the M14 is used in the automatic rifle role.

    12.     The M14 is basically the same in design as the M1 rifle. Design changes, in nearly all instances, were made to accommodate the shorter 7.62-mm cartridge and to allow for the use of a magazine instead of a clip for holding ammunition. Consequently, the receiver, bolt, and firing pin are shorter, and the floor plate of the trigger housing is cut away to allow for the magazine. The most significant advantage of the M14 design is that it offers an increase of 12 rounds in magazine capacity over the M1 rifle with NO INCREASE IN WEIGHT. The most significant advantage of the M14 with bipod (in the automatic rifle role) is that it offers the same magazine capacity as the BAR with a DECREASE IN WEIGHT. The weight saving of the M14 with bipod is about 10 pounds.

    13.     The new 7.62-mm cartridge is approximately 1/2-inch shorter than the caliber .30 M2 cartridge and 12 percent lighter. New developments in powder permit the use of less powder in a shorter case without sacrificing velocity or increase in permissible pressure.

    Relationship of Individual Weapon Design to Combat Use of the Weapon.

    14.     To fully understand rifle marksmanship and rifle marksmanship training, it is necessary to know something of rifles, their characteristics and combat usefulness. The rifle is the primary individual weapon for all armies because it is the most versatile and effective weapon which can be carried and used by a soldier in combat. The rifle can fire ordinary bullets to kill enemy soldiers; it can fire armor-piercing bullets to wreck truck engines; it can fire tracer bullets to point out targets; and it can fire incendiary bullets to start fires in in flammable materials. Add to this the fact that the rifle can also shoot signal flares and powerful grenades and you can see that the rifle is one of the most important weapons in the army.

    15.     But why the rifle? Isn't a hand weapon such as a pistol, revolver, or a hand grenade more convenient in combat? A hand weapon is far more convenient but it cannot do the wide and far-reaching job of a shoulder weapon. The rifle is a weapon that can kill or destroy at a considerable distance so that the enemy can be prevented from getting too close. If individual weapons can reach out a considerable distance it is easier to keep the enemy where larger, more powerful supporting weapons can smash him. The rifleman's weapon must be so constructed that it can be held with steadiness while he directs accurate fire, powerful enough to kill enemy soldiers, as far away as marksmanship skill and the precision of the weapon will allow.

    16.     Here is where the sciences enter the picture. Man's scientific level today is such that it still takes the relatively long, steel barrel and wooden or plastic stock of a rifle to obtain the desired performance. It takes a certain quantity of today's rifle powder to move a certain size rifle bullet at a certain speed so that it will have a certain desired effect on the targets appropriate to it.

    17.     Closely related to the sciences of metallurgy, chemistry, and ballistics, which give us our firearms, is the related field of human mechanics. Human mechanics evaluates man's anatomy to deduce the best systems of weapon configuration. Such items as length of rifle stock, distance between handgrip (pistol grip on a rifle) surface to pressure surface of the trigger, shape of operating handles, and a thousand other minute and often undreamed of details go into the design of a rifle.

    18.     Many scientific and mechanical factors influence marksmanship in some way. Metal lurgy has a large share in determining the weight and bulk of a rifle, as well as its mech anism. Chemistry dictates heavily the ballistic qualities of the rifle. Ballistics in turn fuses together the knowledge of metallurgy and chemistry and adds physics in the design of a cartridge and projectile that will satisfy com bat requirements.

    19.     The complex package called a "rifle" is what soldiers live by on the battlefield. If the design is well done, the rifle will fit the average man very well and will deliver accurate and deadly fire on targets. Seven essential qualities of a modern combat rifle are:

    a.     It must be accurate.

    b.     Its trajectory must be flat.

    c.     Its recoil must be moderate.

    d.     It must be powerful.

    e.     It must be easy to master.

    f.     Its mechanism must be unfailing.

    g. It and its ammunition (in quantity) must be light enough to carry under combat conditions.

    20.     We are now in an era of "Emphasis on Accuracy." The vast numbers of our potential enemies clearly point up the fact that accurate rifle fire is the key to success. A soldier who merely "sprays" shots in the vicinity of the enemy produces little effect. Against an un seasoned enemy such fire may be temporarily effective, but the result is not lasting. The mission of the rifleman is to kill the enemy. Against seasoned troops, spraying shots have little effect. Someone once gave what is perhaps the best definition of firepower when he said that, "firepower is bullets hitting people!" The M1 rifle and the M14 rifle are accurate weapons.

    21.     Trajectory-wise, the M1 and M14 rifles are "flat-shooting." That is, their bullets travel very fast, so they can't fall very much below the line of sight over their usable range. And because the bullets don't "drop" much below the extended line of the bore over combat ranges, it is relatively easy to make hits with them. Moderate recoil means that the muzzle climb in firing is moderate, which makes for fast recovery between shots. This is very important in rapid fire in combat against numbers of enemy.

    22.     The U.S. military rifle must be powerful. That means it must be able to kill an enemy soldier as far away as the rifleman can surely hit him. It must penetrate enemy helmets and body armor easily up to the same range. It should have enough punch to tear through the side of enemy trucks to kill personnel riding within, or to destroy the truck engine. The bullets of the caliber .30 or 7.62-mm rifles are relatively small and light—fine for high speed; yet they are heavy enough and large enough in diameter to deliver a killing blow when they get where they are going.

    23.     The M1 and M14 rifles are extremely simple in design, allowing for quick mastery even by those with no previous knowledge of firearms design. As for functioning, the exhaustive tests of Ordnance personnel, who put these designs through their developmental paces and field testing by using units, have confirmed the reliability of the weapons mechanisms.

    24.     Lightness of rifle and ammunition is a highly controversial issue. By some standards the M1 and M14 (and indeed all military arms) are heavy, but it must be remembered that the ruggedness of a military weapon is something which precludes matching the six-pound weight of a commercial hunting rifle. And the much-argued-for superiority of lightweight alloys, plastics, and glass compounds must be balanced against the yet-to-be confirmed field observations of their wearing qualities and stress resistances.

    25.     The 7.62-mm NATO cartridge, standard for our M14 rifles and M60 machine guns, is actually lighter than the older caliber .30 cartridge by approximately 12 percent. This means that our fighting men carry more ammunition than before with no increase in total weight of field load.

    26.     All in all, U.S. service rifles are admirable weapons; very accurate, very deadly. They are the backbone of our land power.

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Saturday, 2 April 2016

    Deliberations or Discussion by Officers or Soldiers
    Topic: Canadian Militia

    Deliberations or Discussion by Officers or Soldiers

    Deliberations and discussions by officers or soldiers with the object of conveying praise, censure, or any mark of approbation toward their superiors, or any others in the active militia, are prohibited.


    Militia Orders
    Some Very Important Orders

    St. John Daily Sun, 18 January 1901 Ottawa, Jan. 17.—In the militia general orders issued today are the following:

    "Deliberations and discussions by officers or soldiers with the object of conveying praise, censure, or any mark of approbation toward their superiors, or any others in the active militia, are prohibited. The publication of laudatory orders on officers quitting a station or relinquishing an appointment is prohibited. Commanding officers are to refuse to allow subscriptions for testimonials in any shape to superiors on quitting the service or on being removed from their corps. Every officer will be held responsible should he allow himself to be complimented by officers or soldiers, who are serving under his command, by means of presents, plate, swords, etc., or by any expression of their opinion." — [General Order 98, dated 3 December 1900. Titled: "Conveying Praise, censure &c."]

    "Officers are forbidden to forward testimonials relating to the services or character with any application they may make to headquarters. In the event of an officer wishing that the opinions of officers under whom he has served should be brought to notice, he will submit their names so that if necessary they may be referred to." — [General Order 100, dated 3 December 1900. Titled: "Testimonials Related to Service"]

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Friday, 1 April 2016

    Specific Suggestions for Simple Sabotage
    Topic: Resistance

    Specific Suggestions for Simple Sabotage

    Snarl up administration in every possible way.

    Strategic Services Field Manual No. 3, Simple Sabotage Field Manual (provisional), Office of Strategic Services, Washington, D.C., 17 January 1944

    General Interference with Organizations and Production

    Organizations and Conferences

    (1)     Insist on doing everything through "channels." Never permit short-cuts to be taken in order to expedite decisions.

    (2)     Make "speeches," Talk as frequently as possible and at great length. Illustrate your "points" by long anecdotes and accounts of personal experiences. Never hesitate to make a few appropriate "patriotic" comments.

    (3)     When possible, refer all matters to committees, for "further study and consideration." Attempt to make the committees as large possible—never less than five.

    (4)     Bring up irrelevant issues as frequently as possible.

    (5)     Haggle over precise wordings of communications, minutes, resolutions.

    (6)     Refer back to matters decided upon at the last meeting and attempt to re-open the question of the advisability of that decision.

    (7)     Advocate "caution." Be "reasonable" and urge your fellow-conferees to be "reasonable" and avoid haste which might result in embarrassments or difficulties later on.

    (8)     Be worried about the propriety of any decision — raise the question of whether such action as is contemplated lies within the jurisdiction of the group or whether it might conflict with the policy of some higher echelon.

    Managers and Supervisors

    (1)     Demand written orders.

    (2)     "Misunderstand" orders. Ask endless questions or engage in long correspondence about such orders. Quibble over them when you can.

    (3)     Do everything possible to delay the delivery of orders. Even though parts of an order may be ready beforehand, don't deliver it until it is completely ready.

    (4)     Don't order new working materials until your current stocks have been virtually exhausted, so that the slightest delay in filling your order will mean a shutdown.

    (5)     Order high-quality materials which are hard to get. If you don't get them argue about it. Warn that inferior materials will mean inferior work.

    (6)     In making work assignments, always sign out the unimportant jobs first. See that the important jobs are assigned to inefficient workers of poor machines.

    (7)     Insist on perfect work in relatively unimportant products; send back for refinishing those which have the least flaw. Approve other defective parts whose flaws are not visible to the naked eye.

    (8)     Make mistakes in routing so that parts and materials will be sent to the wrong place in the plant.

    (9)     When training new workers, give incomplete or misleading instructions.

    (10)     To lower morale and with it, production, be pleasant to inefficient workers; give them undeserved promotions. Discriminate against efficient workers; complain unjustly about their work.

    (11)     Hold conferences when there is more critical work to be done.

    (12)     Multiply paper work in plausible ways. Start duplicate files.

    (13)     Multiply the procedures and clearances involved in issuing instructions, pay checks, and so on. See that three people have to approve everything where one would do.

    (14)     Apply all regulations to the last letter.

    Office Workers

    (1)     Make mistakes in quantities of material when you' are copying orders. Confuse similar names. Use wrong addresses.

    (2)     Prolong correspondence with government bureaus.

    (3)     Misfile essential documents.

    (4)     In making carbon copies, make one too few, so that an extra copying job will have to be done.

    (5)     Tell important callers the boss is busy or talking on another telephone.

    (6)     Hold up mail until the next collection.

    (7)     Spread disturbing rumors that sound like inside dope.


    (1)     Work slowly. Think out ways to increase the number of movements necessary on your job: use a light hammer instead of a heavy one, try to make a small wrench do when a big one is necessary, use little force where considerable force is needed, and so on.

    (2)     Contrive as many interruptions to your work as you can: when changing the material on which you are working, as you would on a lathe or punch, take needless time to do it. If you are cutting, shaping or doing other measured work, measure dimensions twice as often as you need to. When you go to the lavatory, spend a longer time there than is necessary. Forget tools so that you will have to go back after them.

    (3)     Even it you understand the language, pretend not to understand instructions in a foreign tongue.

    (4)     Pretend that instructions are hard to understand, and ask to have them repeated more than once. Or pretend that you are particularly anxious to do your work, and pester the foreman with unnecessary questions.

    (5)     Do your work poorly and blame it on bad tools, machinery, or equipment. Complain that these things are preventing you from doing your job right.

    (6)     Never pass on your skill and experience to a new or less skillful worker.

    (7)     Snarl up administration in every possible way. Fill out forms illegibly so, that they will have to be done over; make mistakes or omit requested information in forms.

    (8)     If possible, join or help organize a group for presenting employee problems to the management. See that the procedures adopted are as inconvenient as possible for the management, involving the presence of a large number of employees at each presentation, entailing more than one meeting for each grievance, bringing up problems which are largely imaginary, and so on.

    (9)     Misroute materials.

    (10)     Mix good parts with unusable scrap and rejected parts.

    General Devices for Lowering Morale and Creating Confusion

    (a)     Give lengthy and incomprehensible explanations when questioned.

    (b)     Report imaginary spies or danger to the Gestapo or Police.

    (c)     Act stupid.

    (d)     Be as irritable and, quarrelsome as possible without getting yourself into trouble.

    (e)     Misunderstand all sorts of regulations concerning such matters as rationing, transportation, traffic regulations.

    (f)     Complain against ersatz materials.

    (g)     In public treat axis nationals or quislings coldly.

    (h)     Stop all conversation when axis nationals or quislings enter a cafe.

    (i)     Cry and sob hysterically at every occasion, especially when confronted by government clerks.

    (j)     Boycott all movies, entertainments, concerts, newspapers which are in any way connected with the quisling authorities.

    (k)     Do not cooperate in salvage schemes.

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Thursday, 31 March 2016

    Canada's First Carrier Reaches Halifax Port
    Topic: RCN

    Canada's First Carrier Reaches Halifax Port

    Montreal Gazette; 1 April 1946

    Halifax, March 31.—CP—H.M.C.S. Warrior, first aircraft carrier to wear Canada's green maple leaf on her funnel, steamed into her home port today a week out of Portsmouth, England, on her maiden voyage.

    Just inside Sambro lighthouse at the approaches to Halifax, the 18,000-ton flattop turned into the wind and flew off her fighter and reconnaissance aircraft, giving Canadians ashore their first chance of seeing Canadian naval air squadrons flying as units.

    Escorted by the destroyer Micmac and the Algerine minesweeper Middlesex, the Warrior moved upstream to her berth at the naval dockyard. Thousands of ship-conscious Haligonians lined the waterfront to catch a glimpse of the newest addition to Canada' fleet.

    At noon, W.C. Macdonald, Liberal member for parliament for Halifax, boarded the carrier and welcomed the ship's company back to Canada on behalf of Defence Minister D.C. Abbott.

    "One of the lessons of the taught us in Halifax was the value of cooperation between naval and air power, Mr. Macdonald said, "I think it can be said that air power is vital to a modern fleet. Such a vessel as this new aircraft carrier is a recognition of that fact."

    Capt. F.L. Houghton of Ottawa and Halifax expressed pride in his ship and the fact that he had been able to bring her to Halifax.

    The Senior Subaltern

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
    Wednesday, 30 March 2016

    Few Wounds by Cold Steel
    Topic: Cold Steel

    Few Wounds by Cold Steel

    Shrapnel and Shell Fragments Cause Greatest Trouble Owing to Greater Danger of Infection

    The Day, New London, Connecticut, 15 September 1917

    During the Franco-Prussian war there were only 600 wounds by cold steel among 98,000 wounded.

    Much is said about the comparatively unimportant part played by cold steel in the current war. The following passage from the article on "Surgery Military," in the New International Encyclopedia, would seem to indicate that conditions had not changed much in that respect since the Franco-Prussian war; also that the general classes of wounds remain essentially the same.

    "Shrapnel wounds are like those of the old round musket balls, because of their low velocity they are more frequently lodged in wounds than are rifle bullets. Shell wounds, as a class, are much less frequent, but far more severe than shrapnel wounds. Shell fragments cause complete destruction near then bursting point, but effect less damage in more distant zones. Both shrapnel and shell wounds are usually infected, because the missiles carry into the wounds pieces of clothing and other foreign matter. The danger of infection is much increased because of the greater extent of the laceration. Wounds by bayonet, saber and lance occur so infrequently as to be of minor interest. During the Franco-Prussian war there were only 600 wounds by cold steel among 98,000 wounded. Grenades, thrown by hand, rifle and trench mortar, a revival in late wars of an earlier practice, recently have been used to a conspicuous extent in Flanders and France. Their wounds differ in no material particular from those of shell fragments and subterranean mines."

    Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War

    Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT

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