Artillery Horses (1939)
FM 6-5; [US Army] Field Artillery Field Manual, Organization and Drill, Washington, 1939
The two horses assigned to a single driver are called a "pair"; the horse on the left side is called the "near" horse, and the horse on the right, the "off" horse. The driver rides the near horse. The pairs assigned to draw a carriage are termed collectively a "team." A team usually consists of three pairs, designated in the order from front to rear as "lead," "swing," and "wheel" pair. When a team consists of four pairs, they are designated from front to rear as "lead," "lead swing," "wheel swing," and "wheel." The middle pair of a team of five pairs is called the "middle swing" pair. The driver stands to horse on the near side of his near horse, and when necessary to control the off horse also holds the coupling rein, detached from the saddle, in his right hand.